Australia

Australiaee raashtramandal
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: Advance Australia FairN1
rajdhani Canberra
35°a18′aS 149°a08′aE / 35.3°aS 149.133°aE / -35.3; 149.133
sabse bada nagar Sydney
raajabhaasha(eain) NoneN2
National language English (de facto)N2
maanavajaateeya varg 92% white,
7% Asian,
1% Aboriginal and other[1]
nivaasi Australian,
Aussie[2][3] (colloquial)
sarkaar Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of Australia
- Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
- Governor-General Quentin Bryce
- Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
Independence from the United Kingdom
- Constitution 1 January 1901
- Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931
- Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939)
- Australia Act 3 March 1986
kshetrafal
- kul 7686850 varg kilometer (6th)
29,67,909 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.897
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 21,807,000[4] (53rd)
- 2006 janaganana 19,855,288[5]
- ghanatv 2.833/varg kimi (232nd)
7.3/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul US$795.305 billion$[6] (17th)
- prati vyakti US$37,298$[6] (15th)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2008 praakkalan
- kul US$1,010 billion$[6] (15th)
- prati vyakti US$47,400$[6] (13th)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.933[7]
bahut uchch · doosra
mudra Australian dollar (AUD)
samay mandal variousN3 (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+8 to +10.5)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) variousN3 (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+9 to +11.5)
yaataayaat chaalan disha left
doorabhaash koot 61
Internet teeeladi .au

Australia, sarkaari taur par Australiaee raashtramandal dakshini golaarddh ke mahaadveep ke arntagat ek desh hai jo duniya ka sabse chhota mahaadveep bhi hai aur duniya ka sabse bada dweep bhi,[8] jisme tasmaaniya aur kai anya dweep hind aur prashaant mahaasaagar mein hai.N4 Australia ekamaatr aisi jagah hai jise ek hi saath mahaadveep, ek raashtra aur ek dweep maana jaata hai. padosi desh uttar mein Indonesia, poorvi timor aur paapuaa new gini, uttar poorv mein soloman dweep, vaanuatu aur new kailedoniya aur dakshinpoorv mein New Zealand hai.


18vi sadi ke aadikaal mein jab yooropiyn avasthaapan praarambh hua tha uske bhi lagbhag 40 hajaar varsh pehle, Australiaee mahaadveep aur tasmaaniya ki khoj alag-alag desho[9] ke kareeb 250 svadeshi ostreliyaaiyo ne ki thi.[10]tatkaalik uttar se machhuaaro ke chhitput bhraman aur holaindavaasiyo (Dutch) dvaara 1606,[11] mein Europe ki khoj ke baad,1770 mein Australia ke ardvapoorvi bhaag par angrejon (British) ka kabja ho gaya aur 26 January 1788 mein iska niptaara "desh nikla" dandasvarup bane new south vels nagar ke roop mein hua. in varshon mein janasankhya mein teevr gati se vruddhi hui aur mahaadveep ka pata chala,19vi sadi ke dauraan doosare paanch bade swayam-shaasit sheersh nagar ki sthaapana ki gayi.


1 January 1901 ko, chh: nagar mahaasangh ho gaye aur Australiaee raashtramandal ka gathan hua. mahaasangh ke samay se lekar Australia ne ek sthaayi udaar prajaataantrik raajanaitik vyavastha ka nirvahan kiya aur prabhuta sampann raashtra bana raha.janasankhya 21.7miliyn (das lakh) se thoda hi upar hai, saath hi lagbhag 60% janasankhya mukhya raajyon Sydney,Melbourne,Brisbane,Perth aur Adelaide mein kendrit hai. raashtra ki rajdhani kenabarra hai jo Australiaee pradhaan pradesh (ACT) mein avasthit hai.


praudyogik roop se unnat aur audyogik Australia ek samruddh bahusaanskrutik raashtra hai aur iska kai raashtron ki tulana mein in kshatron mein pradarshan utkrusht raha hai jaise svaasthya, aayu sanbhaavyata, jeevan-star, maanav vikaas, jan shiksha, aarthik svatantrata aur moolabhoot adhikaaron ki raksha aur raajanaitik adhikaar.[12]Australiaee shaharon ko jeevan kushalata, saanskrutik prastaavon aur jeevan-star ke kshetr mein duniya mein uchch sthaan diya jaata hai. yeh kai sangathanon jaise sanyukt raashtra, ji-20mukhya arthavyavasthaaeain, raashtra mandal deshon, ANZUS, OECD aur vishv vyaapaar sangathan (WTO) ka sadasya hai.


anukram

vyutpatti

port Jackson kalaakaar ka pratipaadan, site jahaan Sydney sthaapit kiya gaya tha, dakshin pramukh se dekha gaya. A voyaj too ostrailis


Australia naam laitin ke ek shabd ostrelij se liya gaya hai jiska arth "dakshini" hota hai. roman samay ki ek pauraanik katha "ananon land of the south"(Terra australis incognita) aur madhyakaaleen bhoogol mein bhi iska jikr tha par yeh mahaadveep ke kisi dastaaveji jaankaari par aadhaarit naheen tha. 1521 mein prashaant mahaasaagar mein jahaaj chalaane vaale pehle yooropiynon mein se ek spaniards the. angreji mein Australia shabd ka sarvapratham prayog 1625 mein, master hakluyt dvaara likhit, 'hakluyatoos posthumas ' mein saamuel purchaas dvaara prakaashit kitaab "A not of Australia Dale espiritu sainato" mein hua .[13] dach visheshan roop ostrailische ka prayog bataaviya mein dach East India company ke karmachaariyo dvaara 1638 mein dakshin mein nae bhoo-bhaag khoj lene ke sandarbh mein kiya gaya tha.Australia shabd ka prayog 1693 mein 'jakkues sadayoor' up naam se gaabriyel de foignya dvaara 1676 mein French mein likhit upanyaas (Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Déacouverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe) ke anuvaad mein hua tha.[14]uske baad elekajeindar delarimpal ne 'samudra yaatra ka aitihaasik sanchayan'aur 'dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar mein khoj (1771)'mein samooche dakshin prashaant mahaasaagar kshetr ke sandarbh mein kiya tha. 1793 mein, George shau aur sar James smith ne jooloji (jeev-vigyaan) aur botani of new haulaind (new haulaind ka vanaspati vigyaan) kitaab prakaashit ki, jisme unhonne likha tha "ek vishaal dweep ya aanshik roop se Australiaee mahaadveep, ostrailesiya ya new-haulaind".[15]saath hi 1799 mein James Wilson ke chart mein bhi yeh dikhaai pada.[16]


Australia naam Matthew flinders dvaara mashahoor hua, jinhonne 1804 ke kareeb ise aupachaarik taur par apnaane ke liye dabaav daala.jab vah apni paandulipi aur chart apni kitaab 1814 A voyaj too tera ostrailis (A Voyage to Terra Australis) ke liye taiyaar kar rahe the tab ve apne sahayogi sar Joseph bainks dvaara terra ostrailis shabd ka prayog karne ke liye prerit kiye gaye kyonki ye janta ke liye sabse parichit shabd tha. flinders ne bhi aisa hi kiya par ek tippani ke saath:

"Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."[17]

"kya main apne aap ko maulik shabd se kisi navarachana ko anumati dooain, yeh hoga ise Australia mein badalna, jo kaanon ko sunane mein jyaada achha lage aur pruthvi ke doosare mahaan bhoo-bhaago ka sammiln ho", us vyaakhaan mein yahi ek maatr sanyog Australia shabd ka tha lekin parishisht III,"Robert brown ke saamaanya tippani, bhaugolik aur vyavasthit, terra ostrailis ka vanaspati vigyaan" mein brown ne visheshan roop 'Australian ' ka lagaataar prayog kiya hai,[18]yeh us roop ka pehla jaana hua prayog tha.[19]lokapriya dhaarana ke baavajood kitaab naam dhaaran karne mein sahaayak naheen bani, yeh naam agale das varsho mein dheere-dheere saamane aaya.[20]


lachalaan makkuainri 'new-south vels ke ek Governor', anantar apne England ke preshanon mein is shabd ka prayog karte the aur 12 December 1817 ko ise aupachaarik roop se nagareeya kaaryaalayon mein prayog ke liye sveekaarya banaane ki sanstuti ki.[21]1824 mein, nau sena vibhaag sahamat hua ki ab yeh mahaadveep sarkaari taur par Australia naam se jaana jaana chaahiye.


Australiaee angreji mein Australia shabd ka uchchaaran hota hai[əaaˈaastɹaaæaaɪaaljə, -liə].[22]20-veen sadi ke shuruaati samay mein kai baar is desh ko sthaaneeya aur antarraashtreeya roop mein oj (Oz) naam se ullekhit kiya gaya,N5 ossi (Aussie) (kabhi-kabhi oji (Ozzie) likhi jaati hai jo uchchaaran ko achhi tarah pesh karta hai) saamaanya bol-chaal ki bhaasha mein yeh ek visheshan hai aur sanjnyaa roop mein yeh shabd ostreliyaaiyo ka ullekh karti hain.N6


itihaas

Australia ke maanav nivaas-sthaan ki shuruvaat aaj se 42000 aur 48000 varsho pehle ki anumaanit ki gayi hai.[23]ye pehle Australiaee aaj ke aadhunik svadeshi ostrailiyaaiyo ke poorvaj rahe honge, ve bhoo-setu ke raaste aaye honge aur chhoti samudri yaatra vahaan se kiyein honge jo aaj dakshini-poorvi Asia hai. inmein se adhikaansh log shikaari-sangraahak aur saath mein mishrit maukhik sanskruti aur dreemataaim mein vishvaas aur bhoomi ki ijjt karne par aadhaarit aadhyaatmik gun vaale the. the torres jalasanyogi dveepavaasi ethnikllimelaanesiyn, vaastavik mein shikaari aur baagavaani karne vaale the. unki saanskrutik parampara hamesha se mahaadveep ke aadi nivaasiyon se alag rahi hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

kukataaoon haarbar mein "endevar" lieutenant cook ke pot echaem baark ki ek pratikruti

Australian mahaadveep ka pehla abhilikhit yooropiyn avlokan dach naavik William janasjoon dvaara kiya gaya, unhonne 1606 mein kep yaark peninsula ka avlokan kiya tha. 17vi sadi ke dauraan dach ne sampoorn pashchimi aur uttari tatarekha ko abhilikhit kiya jise unhonne new-haulaind kaha, lekin unhonne iske avasthaapan ki koi koshish naheen ki.1770 mein, James cook ne jahaaj lekar poora bhraman kiya aur Australia ke poorvi tat ka maanachitr kheencha, jise unhonne naam diya new-south vels aur great Britain ke liye daava kiya.[tathya vaanchhit]

kook ki khojon ne nae dand sambandhi nagar ki sthaapana ka raasta taiyaar kiya. 26 January 1788 ko kaipten aarthar Phillip dvaara, new south vels ka sheersh british nagar port Jackson mein avasthaapan shuroo kiya gaya. yeh din aage chal kar Australia ka raashtreeya diwas, 'Australia diwas' bana. ven deemeins land jise ab tasmaaniya naam se jaana jaata hai, ki sthaapana 1803 mein ki gayi aur 1825 mein yeh ek alag nagar ho gaya. gretabriten ne 1829 mein aupachaarik roop se Australia ke pashchimi hisse par apna daava kiya. new south vels ke hisse se pruthak karke alag nagaro ka nirmaan kiya gaya, 1836 mein dakshini Australia, 1851 mein Victoria aur 1859 mein kveensalaind.uttari seemaavarti kshetr ki sthaapana 1911 mein hui thi jab ise dakshini Australia se alag kiya gaya. dakshini Australia ki sthaapana ek svatantr pradesh ke roop mein ki gayi, kyoki yeh kabhi bhi dand sambandhi nagar naheen raha.Victoria aur pashchami Australia ki sthaapana bhi svatantr roop mein ki gayi parantu baad mein le gaye doshi kaaraagaaravaasiyon ko isne sveekaar kar liya.[24]doshi kaidiyon ko new south vels le jaana nagaravaasiyon dvaara chalaaye gaye ek abhiyaan ke baad 1848 mein band kar diya gaya.[25]

port aarthar, tasmaaniya laae gaye aparaadhiyon ke liye Australia ki sabse badi jail.

350,000 ki anumaanit svadeshi Australiaee aabaadi jo yooropiyn avasthaapan ke samay thi,[26]usame mukhyat: sparshasanchaari bimaariyon ke kaaran 150 varsho tak chintaajanak tareeke se kami I.[27]"churaai gayi peedhi"(aadivaasi bachchon ko unke parivaaron se hataana), jis par henari renaulds jaise itihaasakaar daleel dete hai ki ise jaati sanhaar ka kaaran maanana chaahiye,[28]jisne shaayad svadeshi janasankhya ko kam karne mein bhi apna yogadaan diya.[29]

aadikaaleen itihaas ke aise bhaashaantaran par kuchh roodheevaadi vivranakaaro dvaara vivaad kiya gaya, jaise bhootapoorv pradhaanamantri hauvard, jaise ki raajanaitik ya vaichaarik kaaranon ke liye atyukti ya kalpit hui hai. itihaasakaar kith vindashatal tark dete hai ki aadivaasi logo ke aacharan ka prabal aitihaasik bhaashaantaran shveto ke seema avasthaapan mein Australia ki kalpana hui .vah daava karte hain ki yeh kaarya raajanaitik roop prerit vidvaanon ki ek peedhi ke kaaryon ka nateeja tha. unhonne aarop lagaaye hain ki yeh kaarya kamzor aitihaasik paddhati apnaakar tathyon ke abhaav mein kahaaniyaan gadhkar, aakrutiyaan banaakar, tathyon ko chhupaakar galat sandarbh sroton ke jariye kiya gaya hai, jisse paathak thage gaye hain.[30]

is vaad-vivaad ko Australia ke andar itihaas yuddhon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.1967 ke rifreindam ka paalan karte hue sangheeya sarkaar ne neetiyon ko kaaryaanvit karne ke liye shakti praapt kiya aur aadivaasiyon ke liye kaanoon banaaya.paaramparik bhoo-svaamitv--deshi sheershak 1992 tak maani naheen gayi, jabatak uchch nyaayaalayane yooropiyn adhigrahan ke samay kveensalaind ke viruddh mebo ke maamale mein Australia ke mat ko terra nyuliys (aksharash "svaamittv mukt bhoomi"prabhaavata "khaali jameen"ya bhoomi) kah kar ulat na diya.[tathya vaanchhit]

the laast post port melaborn, Victoria mein ek ANZAC diwas samaaroh mein khela jaata haiisi prakaar ke samaaroh adhikaansh upanagaron aur kasbon mein aayojit hota hain

1850 ke kareeb Australia mein ek svarn daud shuroo hui aur yooreka kathaghare ke vidroheeyon dvaara, 1854 mein, license shulk ke khilaaf savinya avajnyaa iski shurooaati abhivyakti thi. 1855 aur 1890 ke beech chh: nagaro ne svat: ek daayitvapoorn sarkaar praapt kiya, adhiktar maamalo ki ve khud vyavastha karte the aur baaki british saamraajya ke havaale tha.landan ka nagareeya kaaryaalaya ne kuchh maamale, vishesh taur par videshi maamale, raksha aur antarraashtreeya pot-parivhan ko apne paas rakha.1 January 1901 ko, nagaro ka mahaasangh, dashako ki yojanaaon, paraamarsh aur maton ke baad praapt hua. Australiaee raashtramandal paida hua aur yeh 1907 mein british hukoomat ka riyaasat bana.sangheeya pramukh raajyakshetr (baad mein jiska naam Australiaee pramukh raajyakshetr pada) 1911 mein new south vels ke kuchh hisson se bana, jiska maksad prastaavit nai sangheeya rajdhani ke liye jagah pradaan karna tha. (1901 se 1927 tak Melbourne, sarkaar ka asthaayi seat tha jabki kenabarra nirmaanaadheen tha.) uttari kshetr ko dakshini Australiaee sarkaar se 1911 mein raashtramandal sthaanaantarit kiya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit]

1943 me Australiaee sainikon ne Japani jhande ka pradarshan kiya, jo kaiapit, new gini, par kabja karne se mila tha.

1914 mein Australia, pehla vishv yudgh ladne mein, Britain ke saath ho gaya jise saath mein nirgaami libral party aur aavak lebar party donon ka samarthan praapt tha.[31]ostreliyaaiyo ne pashchimi praant mein hue kuchh pramukh ladaaiyo mein hissa liya.[32]kai ostreliyaaiyo ka maanana hai ki galeepoli mein Australia aur New Zealand ke sainya dalon ki haar, raashtra ke janm ka kaaran bani, jo iska pehla bada sainya abhiyaan tha.[33]kokoda maarg abhiyaan ko kaiyon dvaara dviteeya vishv yudgh ke dauraan ki ek anuroop raashtra-paribhaashit ghatna maana gaya hai.[34]

Britain ke 1931 ke vestaminstar ki pratima ne Australia aur Britain ke beech aupachaarik roop se adhikaanshat samvaidhaanik kadiyon ko khtm kar diya, Australia ne ise 1942 mein sveekaar kiya, lekin ise dviteeya vishv yudgh ke shurooaati samay ka kar diya taaki Australiaee sansad dvaara yudgh ke dauraan paarit iski kaanooni vaidhata ki pushti ho jaae.Britain ke 1942 mein Asia mein haar ke sadamein aur Japani aakramanakaariyon ki dhamaki ne Australia ko sanyukt raajya ka ek sahayogi aur apna rakshak bana diya.ANZUS sandhi ke tahat,1951 se, Australia America ka ek aupachaarik sainya sahayogi hai. dviteeya vishv yudgh ke baad,1970 ke dashak aur Australia ki shvet neeti ke ant se, Australia ne Europe seapravaas ko badhaava diya, Asia aur dusare jagahon se bhi apravaas ko badhaava diya gaya. parinaamasvaroop, Australia ki janasaankhyiki, sanskruti aur swayam ki chhavi roopaantarit ho gayi. Australia aur Britain ke beech antim samvaidhaanik sandhi ko 1986 Australia kaanoon ke paarit hone ke baad alag kar diya gaya aur Australia raajya-sarkaar mein british bhoomika aur UK gupt parishd ko hue nyaayik nivedan ko khtm kar diya gaya.[35]1999 ke janamat sangrah par,54% Australiaee matadaataaon ne ganatantr banane aur raashtrapati ko saansadon ke do tihaai maton se niyukt karne ke prastaav ko khaarij kar diya.vitlam sarkaar ke chanaav ke baad 1972 mein, dusare prashaanteeya kinaaron ke raashtron tak sambandh vistaar par dhyaan kendrit kiya gaya, jabki Australia ke paaramparik sahayogi aur vyaapaarik sahayogiyo ke saath sanbandho ko majaboot rakhane ka prayaas bhi jaari raha.

raajaneeti

sansad bhavan ke pratinidhi sabha, Canberra ko 1988 mein, 1927 mein khole gaye anantim sansad bhavan nirmaan ki jagah khola gaya tha.


Australiaee raashtramandal sangheeya shakti vibhaajan par aadhaarit, ek samvaidhaanik prajaatantr hai. sarkaar ke sansadeeya vyavastha ke saath sarkaar ka jo roop upayog hota hai vah Australia ka samvaidhaanik raajatantr hai.queen Elizabeth II Australia ki mahaaraani hai, unki bhoomika dusare raashtreeya mandal raajyon ke adheeshvaro ke pado se alag hai. sangh ke star par Governor-jenaral ke roop mein pratinidhitv karti hai aur raajya star par Governor ke roop mein.jo kuchh bhi ho samvidhaan Governor-general ko vistrut prabandhakaarini adhikaar deti hai, ye sab saamaanyat: pradhaanamantri ke paraamarsh par hi prayog hote hai. pradhaanamantri ke aadesh ke baahar jo aarakshit aadhikaar Governor-general ko praapt hai usaka sabse ullekhaneeya prayog 1975 ke samvaidhaanik sankat ke samay vitlam sarkaar ki barkhaastagi tha.[36]


sarkaar ki teen shaakhaaeain hain:

  • vidhaan sabha: raashtramandal sansad, jisme mahaaraani, mantri sabha aur sansad hai. mahaaraani Governor general ke roop mein pratinidhitv karti hai, jo prathaanusaar pradhaanamantri ke paraamarsh par kaaryavaahi karti hai.[tathya vaanchhit]
  • kaaryakaarini: sangheeya parishad(Governor general jaisa kaaryakaarini paarshadon ke dvaara paraamarsh diya jaaye); vaastavikta mein, paarshad pradhaanamantri aur raajyamantri hote hai.[tathya vaanchhit]
  • nyaayapaalika:Australia uchch nyaayaalaya aur anya sangheeya nyaayaalaye. 1986 mein jab Australia kaanoon paarit hua tab se Britain ke nyaayik parishad ke khufiya samiti mein Australiaee nyaayaalayon dvaara nivedan band kar diya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit]
    Australia ke Governor-general ka sarkaari nivaas

raashtramandal ke do sadanon ke sansad mein mahaaraani, 76 sabhaasadon ki mantri sabha (oopari sadan) aur 150 sadasyon ki ek pratinidhi sabha (nichli sadan) nihit hote hai. nichli sadan ke sadasya ekal sadasya matadaata kshetr se chune jaate hai; jise saamaanya taur par "nirvaachan kshetron" ya "seaton" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jise janasankhya ke aadhaar par raajyon ko baanta gaya hai, saath mein har mool raajya ke liye kam se kam paanch seatein sunishchit hai. mantri sabha mein, har raajya baarah sabhaasado dvaara pratinidhitv kiye gaye hai aur har pradesh (Australia pramukh pradesh aur uttari pradesh) do ke dvaara b.donon sadanon ke liye chunaav har teen saal mein hote hai, saath-saath saansadon ka kaaryakaal ativyaapi chh: varsho ka hota hai, jabki har chunaav mein aadhe sabhaasadon ka chunaav hota hai jab tak ki yeh chakr doguni vilyan dvaara baadhit na ho.jo party sansad mein bahumat mein hoti hai sarkaar gathan karti hai aur uske neta pradhaanamantri bante hai.[tathya vaanchhit]


sangheeya taur par aur raajya mein do mukhya raajanaitik dal hai jo sarkaar gathan karti hai, ve hai: Australian lebar party aur gathabandhan jo aupachaarikt: do dalon ka sangathan hota hai: the libral party aur uske chhote sahayogi dal, raashtreeya party.svatantr sadasya aur kai chhoti paartiya- jisme greens aur Australian demokrets shaamil hai-inhone Australiaee sansad, adhikaansh: oopari sadan mein apna pratinidhitv praapt kar liya hai.November 2007 chunaav mein lebar party pradhaan mantri ke taur par kevin rud ke saath satta mein I.har Australiaee sansad (sangheeya, raajya aur pradesheeya) mein us samay 2008 sitmbar tak ek lebar party ki sarkaar hoti thi jabatak pashchami Australia ke national party ke saath gathsanghan karke lebar party ne ek alpasankhyak sarkaar ki sthaapana na kar li.2004 ke chunaav mein, pichhli John haavard ki netrutv waali gathabandhan sarkaar ne mantreesabha ki satta jeeti- aisa pichhle bees varsho mein pehli baar hua ki kisi party (ya gathabandhan) ne sarkaar mein rahate hue aisa kiya. har raajya aur pradesh aur sangheeya star par 18 aur usase oopar ke umr vaalo ke liye matadaan anivaarya hai.[37]dakshini Australia ko chhodkar har jagah matadaan ke liye naamaankan karavaana anivaarya hai.[38]


raajyon aur pradeshon

Perth Adelaide Melbourne Canberra Sydney Brisbane Darwin Hobart Tasmania Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania
Australian States and Territories



Australia ke chh: raajye aur do mukhya mahaadveep pradeshe hai. saath hi kuchh chhote pradeshe hai jo sangheeya sarkaar ke prabandhan ke antagart hai.[tathya vaanchhit]


raajye hai, new south vels, kveensalaind, dakshin Australia, tasmaaniya, Victoria aur pashchimi Australia.do mukhya mahaadveep pradesh hai uttari pradesh aur Australiaee pramukh pradesh (ACT).adhiktar maamalon mein, donon pradeshe raajyon ki tarah kaarya karte hai, par raashtramandal sansad inke saansadon dvaara paarit kisi bhi kaanoon ki avhelna ya use khaarij kar sakti hai. virodhaasvaroop, sangheeya kaanoon sirf kuchh kshetron mein raajya kaanoon ki avhelna kar sakti hai jo Australiaee samvidhaan ke dhaara 51 mein hai; raajya sansad ke paas shesh sabhi adhikaar kaayam rahate hai jisme aspataal, shiksha, pulees, nyaayaalaya, sadak, jan parivhan aur sthaaneeya sarkaar par adhikaar shaamil hai.[tathya vaanchhit]


har raajya ya mukhya mahaadveep pradesh ka apna kaanoon ya sansad hai: uttari pradesh, the ACT aur kveensalaind mein ek sabha ya ek sadan aur baaki raajyon mein do sadan ya sabha hai. raajya prabhuta sampann hai, yadyapi raashtramandal ke kuchh vishay par adhikaar samvidhaan mein paribhaashit hai.nichle sadan ko vidhaan sabha ke naam se jaana jaata hai (dakshini Australia aur tasmaaniya mein sanyojan sabha) aur oopari sadan ko vidhaan parishad naam se jaana jaata hai. har raajya mein sarkaar ka mukhiya pradhaanamantri (premier) hota hai aur har pradesh mein mukhya mantri.mahaaraani ki kai bhoomika hai, pratyek raajya mein Governor dvaara pratinidhitv karti hai aur uttari pradesh mein prabandhak dvaara aur ACT mein Australiaee Governor general ke roop mein .[tathya vaanchhit]


sangheeya sarkaar pratyaksh roop se in pradeshon ka prabandhan karti hai:

  • jarvis be pradesh ek nausena tal aur raashtreeya rajdhani ke liye dweep mein samundri bandargaah jo poorv mein new south vels ka hissa tha.
  • krishmas dweep aur kokos (keeling) dvipein, baahar base pradesh
  • ashamor aur kaaratiyr dveepein
  • koral sumudri dweep
  • hard dveepe aur maikadaunald dveepein
  • Australiaee dakshin-dhruveeya pradesh (vistrut:bina basa hua)

norafork dweep bhi takaneeki roop se baahya pradesh hai, jo kuchh bhi ho, norafork dweep kaanoon 1979 ke tahat yeh apne hi vidhaan sabha dvaara sthaaneeya taur par shaasan karti hai aur ise atyadhik svaayattata di gayi hai.mahaaraani prabandhak dvaara pratinidhitv karti hai, varttamaan mein oven vaalsh[39].


videsh sambandh aur sena

Australiaee yuddh smaarak


pichhle kai dashako se Australia ke videsh sambandh America ke saath hue ANZUS sandhi ke ghanisht sahacharya ke dvaara chalti hai aur Asia, visheshakar ASEAN aur prashaanteeya dweep forum ke saath sanbandho ko viksit karne ki ichha ke saath.amiti ki sandhi aur dakshini poorvi Asia sahayog ki apni adhimiln ke dvaara Australia ne poorvi Asia sammelan mein mancheeya aasan sunishicht kar liya. Australia raashtramandal desho ka ek sadasya hai, jisme raashtramandal sarkaaron ke pramukhon ke beech ki mulaakaat aapasi sahayog ke liye mukhya manch pradaan karti hai. Australia ne teji se antarraashtreeya vyaapaar udaareekaran ke uddeshya ka anusaran kiya hai. yeh kairns samooh aur Asia prashaanteeya arthavyavastha sahayog gathan ka kaaran bana.Australia aarthik sahayog aur vikaas sangathan aur vishv vyaapaar sangathan ka sadasya hai aur isne kai pramukh dvipkshik svatantr vyaapaar anubandhon ka anusaran kiya, tatkaal mein Australia-America mukt vyaapaar anubandh aur New Zealand ke saath baraabar ka aarthik sambandh.Australia ka Japan ke saath mukt vyaapaar anubandh ke liye vaarta jaari hai, jiske saath Australia ka Asia prashaant kshetr mein ek vishvaasayogya saathi ke roop mein sambandh hai.[40]Australia, New Zealand, Britain, Malaysia aur singaapoor ke saath paanch shaktishaali raksha sambandhan vyavastha dal hai.sanyukt raashtra ke sthaapana ka ek sadasya desh, Australia apne madhya shakti sahayogi Canada aur naurdik deshon ke saath bahupaksheeya sanbandho ke liye prabal roop se pratibaddh hai aur ek antaraashtreeya sahaayata kaaryakram ka nirvahan karta hai jiske antargat 60 desh sahaayata paate hai. 2005-06 ka bajat vikaas sahayog ke liye A$2.5 karod pradaan karta hai;[41]ghareloo vikaas dar (GDP) ke roop mein yeh sahayog sayukt raashtra ke sahasraabdi vikaas lakshya mein sifaarish ki gayi raashi: se kam hai. Australia ka sthaan 2008 vaishvik vikaas kendra mein vikaas ki pratibaddhata soochi mein saaaintava hai.[42]


Australiaee sashastr senaaeain -- Australian suraksha bal (ADF) mein shaahi Australian nausena (RAN) Australiaee fauj aur shaahi Australiaee vaayu sena (RAAF) ki kul sankhya 73,000 hai (jisme 53000 niyamit aur 20000 aarakshit) hai.[43]Australia ki sena duniya ki 68vi badi sena hai, lekin prati vyakti aadhaar par duniya ki ek chhoti senaahai. Australiaee suraksha bal (ADF) ki sabhi shaakhaaeain sanyukt raashtra mein aur kshetreeya shaanti ke liye (abhi haal hi mein poorvi timor,soloman dweep aur soodaan mein), aapada sahaayata aur sainya sangharsh, jisme 2003 ka iraak yudgh sammilit hai, mein shaamil hai. sarkaar kisi bhi ek sainya bal se suraksha bal ke adhyaksh ko niyukt karti hai; vartaamaan mein suraksha bal ke adhyaksh vaayu sena adhyaksh engas hastan hai. 2006-07 ke bajat mein raksha kharch $22 karod tha,[44]jo vaishvik sainya kharch ka 1% se bhi kam hai. pramukhat:apne Afghanistan mein upasthiti ke kaaran,2008 vishv shaanti suchanaank, mein Australia ko 27va sthaan diya gaya.[45]jabki Governor general Australiaee suraksha bal ka pradhaan senaapati hota hai, inka suraksha bal (ADF) ko chalaane mein koi sakriya yogadaan nahi hota, yeh chuni hui Australiaee sarkaar chalaati hai.[46]


bhoogol

Australia mein jalavaayu kshetron, kyopen vargeekaran ke aadhaar par

Australia ka bhookshetra76,17,930 varg kilometer (29,41,300 varg meal)[47] hind-Australiaee takhte par hai. hindN4 aur prashaant mahaasaagar se ghira hua hai, Australia Asia se araafura aur timur samudron ke kaaran vibhaajit hai. Australia ki tat rekhaa34,218 kilometer (21,262 meal) hai (sabhi apatat dveepon ko chhodkar)[48] aur 81,48,250 varg kilometer (31,46,060 varg meal) ke vistrut vishesh aardhik kshetr par adhikaar hai. is vishesh aarthik kshetr mein Australiaee dakshin-dhruveeya pradesh sammilit naheen hai.

antariksh se dekhe gaye Australia raashtramandal

vishaal avarodhak chattaan, duniya ka sabse bada moonga- chattaan,[49] uttari poorvi tat se bahut kam duri mein sthit hai aur 2,000 kilometer (1,240 meal) se jyaada tak faila hua hai.mount agastas ko duniya ka sabse bada patthar ka khambha, maana jaata hai,[50] jo pashchimi Australia mein sthit hai.2,228 meter (7,310 fut) par sthit great divaaiding range par mount kosikjo Australiaee mahaadveep ka sabse bada chattaan hai; halaaki hard dweep ke sudoor Australian pradesh ka maasan peek 2,745 meter (9,006 fut) lamba hai.


door tak ka Australia ka bada bhaag marusthal hai ya ardhashushk bhoomi hai jise saamanyata pichhda kshetr kaha jaata hai. Australia ek samatal mahaadveep hai, jiski mitti sabse puraani aur kam urvarak hai aur sabse sookha aavaaseeya mahaadveep hai. sirf mahaadveep ke dakshini poorvi aur dakshini pashchimi kinaare ki jalavaayu samasheetoshn hai.janasainkhya ka ghanatv 2.8 nivaasi prati square kilometer hai, jo duniya ke sabse nichlo mein se ek hai, haalaaainki janasainkhya ka ek bada bhaag dakshini-poorvi tat rekh ke samasheetoshn hisse mein rahati hai. ushnadesheeya jalavaayu ke saath desh ke uttari bhaag ke bhoo-pradesh mein varsha prachuravan, jangaleebhoomi, ghaasabhoomi, vaayushif, daladal aur marusthal sammilit hai. mahatvapoornata se jalavaayu mahaasaagareeya bahaavo se prabhaavit hoti hai, jisme bhaarateeya mahaasaagar dridhuv aur al neeno dakshini dolan, jo saamayik sookhe ke saath sahasambandhit hai aur mausami ushnadesheeya nimn chaap vyavastha jo uttari Australia mein chakravaat ka nirmaan karti hai.[51]

paryaavaran

ek ikonik Australiaee jodi banaane vaale koaala aur neelagiri

haalaanki adhikaanshat: Australia ardashushk ya marusthal hai, ismein alapaain jhaadiyon se lekar ushnadesheeya varshaaprachuravan ke vimitr aavaaseeya ksheni hai aur ise bahuvidhita wala desh maana gaya hai. mahaadveep ke itne puraane hone ke kaaran, iske atyadhik asthir mausam namoone aur iska lambi avadhi ka bhogolik vilgan, Australia ka adhikaansh baayota anootha aur bhinn-bhinn prakaar ka hai. lagbhag 85% fool-paudhe, 84% stanapaayi, 45% se jyaada chidiyaaain aur 89% jalachar, samasheetoshn kshetr ki machhaliyaaain sthaanik hai.[52]755 jaatiyon ke saath, Australia mein kisi bhi desh se jyaada sarpanasheel jantu hai.[53]is kshetr ke arntagat Australia ke kai ikoreejan aur jaatiyaaain manushya ke kriyaakalaapon aur nai kism ke paudhon aur jaanvaron ke kaaran khatre mein hai. sangheeya vaataavaran suraksha aur jaiv vividhta sanrakshan kaanoon 1999 khatre mein pade prajaatiyon ke sanrakshan ka ek kaanooni dhaaaincha hai. anoothe paritantr ki suraksha aur use bachaane ke liye raashtreeya jaiv vividhta kaarya yojana ke antagart vimitr suraksha kshetr banaae gaye hai; 64 aardrataayukt bhoomi ko raamasar samjhauta ke antagart panjeekrut kiya gaya hai aur 16 vishv meeraas sthal nirmit kiye gaye hai. Australia ko 2005 ke vishv paryaavaran nirantarata soochanaank mein 13vaan sthaan diya gaya.[54]Australiaee jangalon mein bahudha vibhinn kism ke neelagiri ke vruksh hai aur jyaadaatar uchch varsha dar vaale kshetron mein sthit hai.


adhiktar Australiaee kaashtheeya paudhon ki jaatiyaaain sadaabahaar hai aur kai aag aur sukha ke anukool hai, jisme neelagiri aur babool shaamil hai. Australia ke paas sthaanik fali jaati ke vishaal prakaar hai jo rijobiya baikteriya aur maaikrojil fangi ke saath sahajeevita ke kaaran kam-poshan vaale mittiyon mein panapate hai. bahuprachalit Australiaee jaanvaron meinmanotrims(pletips aur ikidna); maarsupiyls ke parichaarak, jisme kangaaroo, the koala aur vomabret; naamkinijl aur saaf jal magaramachh aur chidiyaaain jaise emu aur kokaburaahai. Australia vishv ke kuchh vishaile saaainpo ka ghar hai.[55]dingo(Australiaee kutta) ko ostronesiyn logo dvaara laaya gaya tha jo 3000 BCE[56] ke kareeb svadeshi ostreliyaaiyo ke saath vyaapaar karte the, pehle maanav avasthaapan ke saath kai paudhe aur jaanvaron ki jaantiya jald hi gaayab ho gayi,[57] jisme Australiaee megaafauna; anya jo yuropiyn avasthaan ke baad gaayab hue usame thaaileseenahai.[58]


haal ke varsho mein jalavaayu parivartan Australia ka bada chinta ka vishay ban gaya hai,[59] saath mein kai ostreliyaaiyo ka maanana hai ki paryaavaran ki suraksha ek mahatvapoorn maamala hai desh abhi jiska saamana kar raha hai.[60] pehle rud mantraalaya ne utsarg ghataane ke liye kar kriyaakalaap praarambh kiye,[61]rud ka pehla kaaryaalayeen kaanoon, kaaryaalaya ke pehle din,kyoto protokolake drudheekaran ke kaarak par hastaakshar karna.tathaapi Australia ka prati vyakti kaarban daaioksaaid nikaasi duniya mein uchch mein hai, kuchh dusare auddayogik desh jaise America, Canada aur naarve se kam hai. pichhle sadi ke anantar Australia mein varsha mein thodi badhottari hui hai, deshbhar mein aur raashtra ke donon chaturth bhaag mein.chirkaalik kami jo shahari aabaadi mein badhottari aur sthaaneeya sookhe ke kaaran ho rahi hai uske kaaran[62]jalavaayu ke is laabhadaayak parivartan ke baavajood, Australia ke kai shaharon aur kshetron mein jal seema laagoo hai.[63]


arthavyavastha

inhein bhi dekhein: Economic history of Australia evam Median household income in Australia and New Zealand
the super pit kalgoorali, Australia ke sabse bade khule sone ki Khan


Australiaee dollar ostreliyaai raashtramandal ki mudra hai, jisme krishmas dweep, kokos (kiling) dweep aur norafok dweep aur saath hi saath kireebati ke prashaanteeya dweep raajya, nauru aur tuvaalu shaamil hai.Australian pratibhooti exchange aur Sydney fyoochars exchange Australia ke bade share baajaar hai.[tathya vaanchhit]aarthik svatantrata ke suchanaank ke anusaar, Australia ek nirvaadh poonjeevaadi arthavyavastha hai.Australia ka prati vyakti (GDP) Britain, Germany aur France se kraya shakti samaanata maamale mein thoda ooaincha hai. desh ko 2007 ke sanyukt raashtra ke maanav vikaas suchanaank mein teesara,2008 ke legaatam mein samruddhi suchanaank mein pehla aur the ikonomist varldavaaid 2005 ke jeevan star suchanaank mein chhatha sthaan diya gaya. Australia ke sabhi bade shaharon ne jeevan kushalata ke tulanaatmak sarve mein achha pradarshan kiya;[64] Melbourne ko 2008 duniya ke sabse achhe aavaaseeya shahar mein doosra sthaan, is soochi mein iske baad Australia ke Perth shahar ko chautha, Adelaide ko 7vaaain aur Sydney ko 9vaaain sthaan mila. [65]sadi ke shuruaat mein vastuon ke daam badhte samay, vastuo ke nirmaan ki jagah uske niryaat par jyaada dhyaan dena Australia ke vyaapaar mein badhotari ka aadhaar bana. Australia ka bhugataan santulit hai jo GDP ke 7% se jyaada nakaaraatmak hai aur 50 varsho se bhi jyaada ke ekasamaan bade chaaloo khaata ghaata hai. [66]Australia 15 varsho se 3.6% ki ausat dar se viksit hua hai, jisme ki ek avadhi tak OECD ka vaarshik ausat 2.5% tha. [67]IMF ke anusaar,17 varsho vikaas ke baad[66]Australiaee arthavyavastha 2009 mein mandi ki maar kha sakta hai.[68] '''

2006 mein Australia ke niryaat ka gantavya aur moolya


1983 mein haak sarkaar ne Australiaee dollar ko chalaaya aur anshat: aarthik vyavastha ko niyantran mukt kiya.[69]haavard sarkaar lebar baajaar ke anshat: viniyman ke saath chali aur adhik raajya adheen vyavasaayon ka nijikran kiya, khaaskardoorasanchaaraudyog mein.10% maal aur seva kar (GST)laagoo karne ke saath[70]apratyaksh kar vyavastha ko July 2000 mein moolat: parivrtit kiya gaya, jisne Australiaee kar vyavastha ke vyaktigat aur company aayakar par aatmanirbharata ko thoda kam kiya.


4.6% berojgaari dar ke saath January 2007 mein 10,033,480 log niyojit the.[71]pichhle dashako se, mahangaai 2-3% aur aadhaarbhoot byaaj dar 5-6% hai. arthavyavastha ka seva kshetr jisme paryatan, shiksha aur aarthik sevaaeain hai, unka GDP mein 69% yogadaan hai.[72] yadyaapi krushi or praakrutik sansaadhan GDP ke sirf 3% aur 5% ke liye jimmedaar hai, ve moolat: niryaat pradarshan mein yogadaan karte hai. Australia ke bade niryaat baajaar Japan, cheen, America, dakshini Korea aur nyoojeelaind hai.[73]


janasaankhyiki


aitihaasik aabaadi[74]
svadeshi janasankhya
poorv 1788 lag-bhag 350,000
gairasvadeshi janasankhya vruddhi
1788 900 --
1800 5200 477.8%
1850 405,400 7,696.2%
kul janasankhya vruddhi
1900 3,765,300 --
1910 4,525,100 20.2%
1920 5,411,000 19.6%
1930 6,501,000 20.1%
1940 7,078,000 8.9%
1950 8,307,000 17.4%
1960 10,392,000 25.1%
1970 12,663,000 21.9%
1980 14,726,000 16.3%
1990 17,169,000 16.6%
2000 19,169,100 11.6%
2009 21,828,704 13.6%
dakshin Australia ka baarosa ghaati-sharaab nirmaan kshetr. 15% se bhi kam Australiaee graameen kshetron mein rahate hain.

anumaanit 21.8 million (das lakh) mein adhiktar ostreliyaai upanivesh kaal ke sthaapito ke vanshaj hai aur Europe ke uttar-sangheeya apravaasi hai aur kareeb janasainkhya ka 90% Europeeya vanshaj ke hai. peedhiyon se, upaniveshakaaleen sthaapiton aur uttar sangheeya apravaasiyon ka vishaal janasankhya british aaisls se keval yahaaain I aur Australiaee log abhi bhi mukhyat: british ya aayarish ethinik utpati ke hai. 2006 mein Australiaee ganana sabse jyaada jisme Australiaee vanshaj (37.13%),[75] fir angrej(31.65%), aayarish(9.08%), skautish(7.56%), itaaliyn(4.29%), jarman (4.09 %), chaaineej(3.37%) aur greek (1.84%) aate hain.[76]


Australia ki aabaadi pehle vishv yudgh se chaar guna badh gayi hai,[77] aur mahatvaakaankshi aapravaasi kaaryakram ke kaaran bhi badhi.doosare vishv yuddh se 2000 tak, kul janasankhya ka kareeb 5.9 million desh mein nae apravaasi ke taur par base, iska matlab hua ki har saat mein se do Australiaee samudra paar paida hua.[78]adhiktar apravaasi kushal hai,[79]lekin apravaasi kota mein parivaar ke sadasyon aur rifyooji ke liye vibhaag shaamil hai.[79]2001 mein 23.1% ostreliyaaiyo ka paaainch bada samooh samudra paar Britain, nyoojeelaind, Italy, viytanaam aur cheen mein paida hua tha. [73][80] 1973 mein Australiaee shvet neeti ke ant ke saath, bahusanskrutivaad ki neeti ke aadhaar par jaati sauhaard ko protsaahan aur badhaava dene ke liye kai sarkaari pahalon ko sthaapit kiya gaya.[81] 2005-06 mein mukhyat: Asia aur osiniya se 131,000 se jyaada apravaasi Australia aaye.[82]2006-07 ka pravaasi lakshya 144,000 tha.[83]2008-09 ke liye kul pravaasi kota 300,000-yeh dviteeya vishv yudgh ke samay bane apravaasi vibhaag ke nirmaan ke baad sabse jyaada hai.[84][85]


lagbhag teen chauthaai Australiaee mahaanagaron aur tateeya kshetron mein rahate hain. yeh beech Australia ki pehchaan ka ek abhinn hissa hai. [152]


svadeshi janasankhya-mahaadveepeeya aadivaasi aur tors stret dveepavaasiyon-ki sankhya 2001 mein 410,003(kul janasankhya ka 2.2%) ganana ki gayi thi;jisme 1976 ki ganana se abhootapoorv badhottari hui; jismein sarvadeshi janasankhya 115,953 gini gayi.[86]badi sankhya mein svadeshi janasankhya ki ganana naheen ho saki kyonki unki svadeshi sthiti firm mein daakhil naheen hui thi, kaaranon ke samanvaya ke baad,ABS ne 2001 ka sahi aaainkada lagbhag 460,140 (kul janasankhya ka 2.4%) anumaanit kiya.[87]svadeshi ostreliyaaikaaraavaas aur berojgaari, shiksha ka nicha star aur jeevan kaal purushon aur mahilaaon ka jo 11-17 varsh videshiyon se kam hai, se prabhaavit hai.[73][88][89]kuchh sudoor svadeshi varg ko "vifal raajya" jaisi avastha se paribhaashit kiya gaya hai.[90][tathya vaanchhit]


viksit desho mein jo ek baat samaan hai, Australia ki janasankhya boodhi janasankhya ki or badh rahi hai jisse sevaanivrutti aur seva karne vaalon ki kam umr vaale jyaada hai. 2004 mein, saamaanya janasankhya ki ausat umr 38.8 varsh thi.[91]ek badi sankhya mein Australiaee (2002-03 ki avadhi mein 759,849)[92]apne desh se baahar rahe.


bhaasha

raashtreeya bhaasha angreji hai.[93]apni khud ki vishesh uchchaaran gun aur shabd sangrah (jisme kuchh ne apne liye angreji ki raah khoj li) ke saath Australiaee angreji bhaasha ka ek mukhya prakaar hai, lekin American ya british angreji se aantarik boli bhinnata mein kam (chhote kshetreeya uchchaaran aur shaabdik vividhta ko chhodkar) hai. vyaakaran aur vartani mukhyat: british angreji par aadhaarit hai. 2001 ki ganana ke anusaar svadesh ki kareeb 80% janasankhya dvaara sirf angreji bhaasha boli jaati hai. doosare saamaanya jo bhaasha ghar mein boli jaati hai vah hai cheeni (2.1%), itaaliyn (1.9%) aur greek (1.4%).pehli aur doosari peedhi ke pravaasiyon ka ek ullekhaneeya anupaat dvibhaashik hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki pehle yooropiyn sampark ke samay,Australiaee praacheen bhaashaaen 200 se 300 ke beech thi. iname se sirf 70 ke kareeb hi bach paae aur unamein se 20 ab khatre mein hai. ek svadeshi bhaasha 50,000(0.25%) logon ki mukhya bhaasha abhi bhi bani hui hai. Australia ke paas ek chinh bhaasha hai jise asalan ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo kareeb 6500 bahare logon ki mukhya bhaasha hai.


dharm

Australia ka koi raashtreeya dharm naheen hai. 2006 ki ganana mein, 64% Australiaee ko kisi bhi manushya jaati ke isaai ke roop mein soocheebaddh kiya gaya tha, jisme 26% roman Catholic aur 19% engaliken ke roop mein the."dharm rahit"(jisse maanavataavaad, aneeshvaravaad, ajnyaeyavaad aur buddhivaad) kul milaakar 19% aur jo teji se badhta hua samooh hai (2006 aur 2001 ke ganana mein hue vibhinnata ke sandarbh mein; aur 12% javaab naheen diye aur na hi anuvaad par koi anukool pratikriya vyakt kiye).Australia mein doosra bada dharm bauddh, uske baad hindu aur islaam dharm hai. kul milaakar 6% se kam Australiaee isaai dharm ke alaava ke paae gaye hai. [94]sarvekshano se pata chala hai ki viksit desho mein Australia kam dhaarmik raashtra hai, saath hi ostreliyaaiyon ke jeevan ke dharm ki koi mahatvapoorn bhoomika ke roop mein vyaakhya naheen ki gayi hai.[95][96]jaisa ki vibhinn pashchimi desho mein hain, yahaaain charcho mein araadhana karne vaale sakriya bhaageedaar kam hai aur kam ho rahi hai, church ke kaayon mein,[97]2004 ke ganana ke anusaar, upasthit janasankhya ka kareeb 7.5% yaani 1.5 million hai.[98]


shiksha

poore Australia mein school upasthiti anivaarya hai. adhikaansh Australia raajya mein 5-6 varsh ke bachche 11 varsh ki anivaarya siksha praapt karte hai; uske baad do varsh aur badh sakte hai (11 aur 12 varsh), iska saaksharata dar mein sahayog kareeb 99% maana gaya hai.antaraashtreeya vidyaarthi mulyaankan kaaryakram, aarthik sah bhaagita aur vikaas sangathan (OECD) ke sahayog dvaara, ostraliyaai shiksha ko vishv mein aaainthava sthaan diya gaya hai, jo visheshataapoorvak 30 desho OECD ke ausat sthaan se jyaada hai.[99]sarkaari anudaan se Australia ke 38 vishvavidyaalayon ko samarthan di jaati hai aur jabki kai neeji vishvavidyaalaya bhi banaae gaye hai, jisme se adhikaansh ko sarkaari nidhiyn mila.vyaavasaayik prashikshan ke liye ek raajya aadhaarit vyavastha hai, jo mahaavidyaalayon se jyaada hai jise tef sansthaan ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur kai udyog nae udyamiyo ke liye prashikshan ka prabandh karte hai. lagbhag 58% 25 se 64 varsh ke ostreliyaaiyo ke paas vyaavasaayik ya truteeya shreni ki paatrata hai,[73] aur OECD desho mein 49% ke snaatak dar ke saath iska sthaan sabse oopar hai. truteeya shreni se shiksha lene vaale sthaaneeya aur antaraashtreeya vidyaarthiyon ka anupaat OECD ke desho mein sabse jyaada Australia ka hai.[100] saaaincha:Largest cities of Australia


sanskruti

melaborn ka royal pradarshani bhavan Australia ki aisi pehli imaarat thi jo 2004 mein UNESCO vishv viraasat sthal mein soocheebaddh hai.

1788 se baad Australiaee sanskruti ka praathamik aadhaar englo seltik raha hai, yadyapi desh ke praakrutik vaataavaran aur svadeshi se sanskrutiyon se kai Australiaee visheshataaeain baahar nikli.20veen sadi ke madhya se Australiaee sanskruti, America prakhyaat sanskruti (visheshakar telivijn aur cinema), Australia ke Asiaee padosi aur bade paimaane par angreji bhaasha na bole jaane vaale desho ke apravaasiyon se prabhaavit rahi hai.


Australiaee drushyakala ki shuruaat apne svadeshi logo ke gufaaon aur vrukshon ki chitrakalaaon se maani gayi hai.[101]svadeshi ostreliyaaiyo ki parampara maukhik roop se jyaada prasaarit hui aur dreemataaim ki kahaaniyon ko kehne aur samaarohon se judi hain. Australiaee praacheen sangeet, nrutya aur kala se prabhaavit hui. yooropiyn avasthaapan ke samay se,[tathya vaanchhit] Australiaee kala ka vishay Australiaee bhoomi pradesh ka chitr, jo udaaharanasvaroop albart namatjeera, arthar streetan aur dusare hedilbarg school aur arthar boyd saath jude ki kaaryo mein dekha jaata hai. is samay jo Australiaee kalaakaar aadhunik America aur yooropiyn kalaaon ke saath jude hain usamein kyoobist gres krovali, surrelist James gleesan, amoort vyanjak bret vitle aur paup kalaakaar Martin sharp shaamil hai.Australia ka raashtreeya chitrashaala aur vibhinn doosare raajya chitrashaalaaen Australiaee aur videshi sankalanon ko sambhaal kar rakhe hue hai. 20veen sadi ke praarambh se lekar abatak Australiaee aadhunik kalaakaaron ke liye desh ke bhoomi pradesh ka chitr mukhya preranaasrot bani hai; is baat ki stuti jeet kalaakaaron ki chitron mein hoti hai, ve hai Sydney nolan, gres kosingatan smith, fred Williams, Sydney laung aur kliftan pagh.

Australiaee kalaakaar aarthar streetan ka sanalaait sveet

Australiaee pradarshan kalaaon ki kuchh kanpaniyaaain sangheeya sarkaar ki Australia parishad se aarthik sahaayata paati hai. har raajya ke pradhaan shahar mein ek svararachana vaadak yantr hai aur raashtreeya opera company, opera Australia, jo gaayak John sutheralaind ke dvaara nikla.nili melba unki vikhyaat poorveedhikaari thi. naatak aur nrutya Australiaee bailet aur vimitr raajya nrutya companiyon ke dvaara pradarshit ki jaati hain. har raajya ke paas saarvajanik nidhi praapt rangamanch company hain.

Sydney ke Australiaee raashtreeya samudri sangrahaalaya mein aadivaasi geet aur nrutya ka pradarshan

Australian cinema udyog ki shuruaat ostreliyaai bush reinjar ned Kelly ki 70 - minute ki film the story of the Kelly gang ke pradarshani ke saath 1906 mein shuroo hui, jise duniya ki pehli lambi film maana jaata hai.[102]the new vev of Australian cinema 1970 ke dashak mein uttejak aur safal filme laai, kuchh desh ke aadivaasiyon ke bhut-kaal ka varnan karti hai, jaise piknik ait haiging raak aur the laast vev .baad ke safal mein maid maiks aur gaalipoli shaamil hai. haal hi ki safalta mein shaain, raibit-proof feins aur haippi feet shaamil hai. ostreliyaai ke vividh bhoomi pradesh aur shahar kai doosare filmon ke praathamik sthaan rahe hai, jaise- the maitriks, Peter pain, suparamain reetarns aur faainding nemo ke.haal ke achhi tarah vikhyaat Australiaee abhineta mein judith anderason, errol flaain, nikole kidman, hagh jakkman, heth lejar, geoffre rash, russell krove, toni kolette, naomi vauts aur Sydney rangamanch company ke sanyukt nirdeshak- Kate blainaket shaamil hai.


Australiaee saahitya bhi bhoomi pradesh se prabhaavit hui hai, kai lekhako ke kaam jaise banjo paterason, henari laavasan aur dorotha maikelar Australiaee jhaadon ke anubhav ko liye.Australiaee aadivaasiyon ka aacharan, jaisa ki shurooaati saahityon mein darshaaya gaya hai, vah aadhunik ostreliyaaiyo mein mashahoor hai. ve maanate hai ki yeh samataavaad, metasheep aur enti-othoreetenism ko badhaata hai.[tathya vaanchhit] 1973 mein petrik vaait ko Nobel praaij se navaaja gaya tha, aisa karne vaale ve ekamaatr Australiaee the.koleen maikkulof, David viliymsan aur David mulof bhi prasiddh lekhak hai.


Australia ke paas do saarvajanik prasaaranakarta (the Australian brodakaasting nigam aur bahusaanskrutik vishesh prasaaran seva), teen vaanijyik television network, kai pe-TV sevaaeain aur vibhinn saarvajanik, laabh raahit television aur radio kendra hai. har pramukh shahar mein rojaana ke akhabaare aur do raashtreeya dainik akhabaare, the Australian aur the Australian fainainshiyl review hai. 2008 mein reports without borders ke anusaar, Australia ka mukt press dvaara diye gaye, 173 desho ko sthaan mein 25vaan hai, nyoojeelaind ke (7vaan) aur (23vaan) ke peechhe lekin America (48vaan) se aage.paayadaan mein neeche hone ka pramukh kaaran hai Australia mein vyaavsaayik media ke simit vibhed,[103] saath mein, adhikaansh Australian print media niuj corporation aur John feyarafeks holdings ke niyantran adheen hai.


spasht: both Australian football niyam Victoria mein utpaadit hai aur ek bahut lokapriya khel hai.


Australia khel kriyaakalaapon mein 15 varsh ke oopar vaale kareeb 24% ostreliyaai niyamit roop se bhaag lete hai.[73]Australia ke kai majaboot antarraashtreeya teemein cricket, fild hockey, net baul, ragbi league, ragbi union mein hai aur yeh saaikling, roing aur tairaaki mein achha pradarshan karte hai. Australia mein kuchh bade safal khilaadi hai tairaak daaun frejar, marre ros aur len thorp, sprintar betti kathabrt, tennis khilaadi road levar aur mergret court aur cricketer donaald bredamain.raashtreeya taur par dusare mashahoor khel hai Australian tools footabaal, ghuddaud, sarfing, footabaal (sokar) aur motor daud.Australia ne aadhunik daur ke sabhi samar olympic khelo aur sabhi raashtramandal khelo mein hissa liya hai. Australia ne 1956 mein Melbourne samar olanpik aur 2000 mein Sydney samar olanpik ki meinjabaani ki aur 2000 mein medal paane vaale sheersh chh: mein shaamil rahaan.[104]Australia ne saath hi 1938, 1962, 1982 aur 2006 raashtramandal khelo ki bhi mejabaani kar chooka hai. dusare mahatvapoorn shrankhalaaen jo Australia mein hui hai uname grand slam Australian open tennis tournament, antaraashtreeya cricket maiche aur formula van Australian grand priks shaamil hai. uchch sthaan praapt television kaaryakram mein khel prasaaran jaise samar olanpik gems, states of aarijin aur raashtreeya ragbi league aur Australian footabaal league ke bhavya final shaamil hai.[105]


antaraashtreeya soochi

saaaincha:International rankings of Australia


yeh bhi dekhiye

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/a' not found.

  • Australia sambandhit lekho ki soochi
  • Australia (mahaadveep)


nots (tippani)

  1. ^ Australia ka apna ek shaahi raashtragaan hai, "gad sev da kuin (ya King) (God save the Queen(or king))", jise shaahi parivaar ki upastithi mein chalaaya jaata hai aur dusare mauke par Australia mein hote hai. dusare mauke par Australia ka raashtragaan "adavaans Australia fair (Advance Australia Fair)" bajaaya jaata hai.[106]
  2. ^ angreji ko kaanooni darja naheen praapt hai.[93]
  3. ^ in teen samay kshetron mein sukshm antar hai, Australia mein samay dekhe.
  4. ^ Australia apne mahaadveep ke dakshini jaaleem bhaag ko dakshini mahaasaagar ke roop mein paaribhaashit karta hai, na ki bhaarateeya mahaasaagar, jaisa ki antaraashtreeya jalmaap chitran sangathan (IHO) dvaara paaribhaashit kiya gaya hai. 2000 mein, IHO sadasya desho ka ek mat,'dakshini mahaasaagar' shabd ko paribhaashit kiya ki yeh antaartika aur 60 degree dakshini ankshaasha ke beech ke jal par sirf laagoo kiya jaayega.
  5. ^ os (Oss) ke roop mein, the Oxford english diksanari mein yeh pehli baar 1908 mein darj kiya gaya.
  6. ^ Frank baum ke upanyaas the vandarafool vijaard of oji (1900) par aadhaarit film the vijaard of oji (1939) mein oji ke kalpit bhoomi ko praaya: apratyaashit sandharb ke roop mein praaya: liya gaya hai.[107]ostreliyaaiyo "ostreliyaai ko oji laind" ke roop mein chhavi nai naheen hai aur ismein bahut gahra samarpan bhaav: nihit hai.[108]1939 ke film ke dvaara oz ka akshar vinyaans prabhaavit maana jaata hai, jabki uchchaaran hamesha /z/ ke saath hota hai, jaisi hai asi (Aussie) ke saath, kabhi-kabhi likhit oji (Ozzie) .[109]baj luhrman ki film Australia (2008) mein the vijaard of oji ke sandarbh ko hi dubaara sandarbhit kiya, joAustralia ki yudgh samay ke halchalon ke theek pehle prakat hua tha. ek sameekshak ne likha, "aap luhrman ki bahaaduri par apni sahamati de sakte hai baavajood iske ki, the vijaard of oji ka, oji bhoomi ek chamatkaari jagah indradhanush ke paar, Australia mein pun: prastut hua hai".[110]kuchh aalochakon ne yeh anumaan lagaaya ki,oj bhoomi ke naamakaran mein, baum 'Australia' se prerit the, ojma of oj mein Dorothy samudra par aaye toofaan ke parinaam svarup oj vaapas chala jaata hai, jabki vah aur uske chaacha henari samundri jahaaj dvaara Australia yaatra kar rahe hai. isliye, Australia ki tarah, oj California ke pashchim ke taraf kaheen par hai. Australia ki tarah oji ek dweep mahaadveep hai. Australia ki tarah, oj mein mahaan seema par aavaaseeya kshetr basa hua hain. koi aisa bhi soch sakta hai ki baam ne oji ko Australia bana diya ya mahaan Australiaee marusthal ke kendra mein ek chamatkaari bhoomi.[111]
  7. ^ "okar, n 2 ostrl slaing ....ek khuradara, aupajaaoo, ya agrasit bhoora ostreliyaai aadmi;(visheshat: rudhivaadi)"(SOED)


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granthasoochi

  • denoon, donaald, eight L. (2000).A history of Australia, new jeelaind, end the paisifik. Oxford : Blackwell.ISBN 0-631-17962-3.
  • hags, Robert (1986). the faital shor: the epik of ostreliyaas faaunding. nof.ISBN 0-394-50668-5.
  • maikainataayar, stuart (2000). A konsaaij history of Australia .Cambridge, Britain: Cambridge university press. ISBN 0-521-62359-6.
  • paavel jeem (1988). N historikl jiograafi of modern Australia: the restiv frinj . Cambridge. yoo॰ake॰: Cambridge university press.ISBN 0-521-25619-4.
  • robinsan jeeem, laufraan aaraje aur trainatar PJ (2000) Australia end nyoojeelaind: ikonomi, society end invaayaranameint .London: arnold, NY: OUP; 0-340-72033-6 paper 0-340-72032-8 hard).


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