Asiaee vikaas bank

Asian Development Bank

ADB logo
dhyeya Fighting poverty in Asia and the Pacific
sthaapana 22 August 1966
prakaar Regional organization
vaidhaanik sthiti Treaty
uddeshya Crediting
mukhyaalaya Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila, Philippines
sevit kshetr Asia-Pacific
sadasyata 67 countries
President Haruhiko Kuroda
mukhya ghatak Board of Directors[1]
karmachaari 2,500+
jaalaprushth http://www.adb.org
Asiaee vikaas bank ke sadasya raajyon [1] [2]

Asiaee vikaas bank (edeebi) ek kshetreeya vikaas bank hai jiski sthaapana 22 August 1966 ko Asiaee deshon ke aarthik vikaas ke sugameekaran ke liye ki gayi thi.[2] yeh bank yooऍn (UN) economic commission for Asia end faar East (ab yooenaiesaseeepi- UNESCAP) aur gair kshetreeya viksit deshon ke sadasyon ko sammilit karta hai.[2] is bank ki sthaapana 31 sadasyon ke saath hui thi, ab edeebi ke paas ab 67 sadasya hain - jisme se 48 Asia aur paisifik se hain aur 19 sadasya baahari hain. edeebi (ADB) ka praaroop kaafi had tak world bank ke aadhaar par banaaya gaya tha aur world bank (vishv bank) ke samaan yahaan bhi bhaarit vote pranaali ki vyavastha hai jisme voton ka vitran sadasyon ke poonji abhidaan anupaat ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. vartamaan mein, sanyukt raajya America aur Japan donon ke hi paas 552,210 share hain - in donon ke paas sheyaron ka sabse bada hissa hai jo kul ka 12.756 pratishat hai.[3]

anukram

sangathan

edeebi (ADB) mukhyaalaya, metro Manila

bank ki sarvochch neeti-nirdhaarak sanstha, board of gavarnars hai jo pratyek sadasya desh ke ek pratinidhi ke dvaara bani hai. iske badle mein, board of gavarnars, apne samooh mein se 12 sadasyon ko board of daayarektars aur unke sahaayak ke roop mein chunate hain. in 12 sadasyon mein se 8 sadasya kshetreeya sadasyon (Asia-paisifik) se liye jaate hain jabki anya gair kshetreeya sadasyon mein se hote hain.

board of gavarnars, bank ke adhyaksh ka bhi chunaav karte hain jo board of daayarektars ka bhi adhyaksh hota hai aur edeebi (ADB) ka prabandhan dekhta hai. adhyaksh ka kaaryakaal 5 varshon ka hota hai aur ise pun: nirvaachit kiya ja sakta hai. paramparaagat roop se ab tak adyaksh sadaiv Japan se hi rahe hain aur yeh sanbhavat: isliye bhi hai kyonki Japan bank ke sarvaadhik bade sheyaradhaarakon mein se hai. vartamaan adhyaksh, haaruhiko kuroda hain, jinhonne 2005 mein tadaao chino se padabhaar liya tha.

bank ka mukhyaalaya 6 edeebi evenyoo, mandalooyong city, maitro Manila, filipins mein hai aur iske pratinidhi kaaryaalaya poore vishv mein hain. bank mein lagbhag 2,400 karmachaari hain, jo iske 67 pratinidhi deshon mein se 55 deshon se hain aur aadhe se bhi adhik karmachaari fileepeens ke rahanevaale hain.

itihaas

1962-1972

vaastav mein edeebi (ADB) ki yojana kuchh prabhaavashaali jaapaaniyon dvaara banaayi gayi thi jinhonne 1962 mein ek kshetreeya bank ke liye "niji yojana" taiyaar ki thi, jise baad mein sarkaar dvaara samarthan praapt ho gaya. jaapaaniyon ko aisa anubhav hua ki Asia se unka hitsaadhan world bank ke dvaara naheen ho pa raha hai aur isliye vah ek aisa bank sthaapit karna chaahate the jisme Japan ko sansthaagat laabh praapt ho. 1966 mein edeebi ki sthaapana ke baad, Japan ne bank mein vishisht sthaan praapt kar liya; ise adhyakshata aur kuchh anya "aarakshit pad" praapt hue jaise prashaasakeeya vibhaag ke nideshak ka pad. 1972 ke ant tak Japan ne saadhaaran poonji sansaadhanon mein 173.7 million dollar (kul ka 22.6 pratishat) ka yogadaan aur vishisht kosh mein 122.6 million dollar (kul ka 59.6 pratishat) ka yogadaan kiya tha. iske vipreet, sanyukt raajya ne vishisht kosh mein maatr 1.25 million dollar ka yogadaan kiya.[2]

edeebi (ADB) Japan ki aarthik svaarth siddhi karta hai kyonki iske rin adhiktar Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, south Korea aur fileepeens jaate hain, ye sab aise desh hain jinke saath Japan ke mahattvapoorn vyaapaarik sambandh hain; 1967-72 mein edeebi (ADB) dvaara jaari kiye gaye kul rin ka 78.48 pratishat rin in deshon ko diya gaya tha. iske alaava, Japan ko isse anya thos laabh bhi mile hain, 1967-76 mein ise kul adhipraapti ka 41.67 pratishat praapt hua. Japan ne vishisht kosh mein swayam dvaara kiya gaya yogadaan apne kuchh vishesh kshetron evam khandon aur apne maal evam suvidhaaon ki adhipraapti ke liye surakshit rakha hai, jaisa ki April 1968 mein vishisht krushi kosh mein 100 million dollar ke anudaan se bhi parilkshit hua.[2]

taakeshi vaataaneb 1966 se 1972 tak edeebi (ADB) ke pehle adhyaksh rahe.

1972-1986

sanchayi yogadaan mein Japan ki hissedaari 1972 mein 30.4 pratishat se badhkar 1981 mein 35.5 pratishat aur 1981 mein 41.9 pratishat ho gayi. iske aalaava, Japan edeebi (ADB) ka ek mahattvapoorn rin strot bhi raha hai, edeebi ne Japan se 1973-86 mein 29.4 pratishat (6,729.1 million dollar mein se) rin liya jabki iski tulana mein Europe se 45.1 pratishat aur sanyukt raajya se 12.9 pratishat rin liya. Japani adhyaksh inaaus shiro (1972-76) aur yoshida taroichi (1976-81) kaafi lokapriya hue. fujioka masaao jo chauthe adhyaksh (1981-90) the, unhonne ek nirankush netrutv shaili ko apnaaya. unhonne edeebi (ADB) ko ek uchch prabhaav yukt development agency (vikaas agency) ke roop mein vistrut karne ki ek mahatvakaankshi yojana ki ghoshana ki. unki yojana aur bainkig siddhaant ke kaaran sanyukt raajya ke nideshak ke saath vivaad badhne laga, jiski amerikaavaasiyon ne 1985 ki vaarshik baithak mein mukt roop se aalochna ki.[2]

is kaal ke dauraan edeebi (ADB) aur Japani vitt mantraalaya (ministri of finance) ke madhya, visheshat: intaranaishanal finance bureau ke saath, majaboot sansthaagat gathabandhan ho gaye the.

1986 se

sanchayi yogadaan mein Japan ki hissedaari 1986 mein 41.9 pratishat se badhkar 1993 mein 50.0 pratishat ho gayi. iske aalaava Japan edeebi (ADB) ke liye ek pramukh rin pradaata bhi ban gaya tha, 1987-93 ke beech edeebi ne apne kul krj ka 30.4 pratishat Japan se liya, jabki 39.8 pratishat Europe se aur 11.7 pratishat sanyukt raajya se liya. haalaanki, poorv ke vyavahaar se hatate hue ab Japan 1980 ke dashak ke madhya se adhik nirankush ho gaya tha. Japan ki yojana edeebi (ADB) ko apni vishaal atirikt poonji ke punarchakran ke liye vaahak ke roop mein aur is kshetr mein niji Japani poonji ko aakarshit karne ke liye ek "utprerak" ke roop mein prayog karne ki thi. 1985 ke plaaja samjhaute ke baad, yen ke badhte moolya ke kaaran Japani udpaadanakarta dakshinpoorv Asia ki or badhne ke liye vivsh ho gaye. edeebi (ADB) ne sthaaneeya avasanrachana mein sudhaar ke dvaara Japan ki niji poonji ko Asia mein nirdeshit karne mein bhoomika nibhaayi hai.[2] edeebi (ADB) ne swayam ko saamaajik sarokaaron, jaise shiksha, svaasthya aur janasankhya, shahari vikaas aur paryaavaran ke liye apne kul rin ka 40 pratishat dene ke liye bhi pratibaddh kiya joki us samat 30 pratishat tha.[2]

edeebi (ADB) rin

edeebi (ADB) ordinri kaipitl risorsej (oseeaar- saamaanya poonji sansaadhan) se vyaapaarik sharton par "hard" loan deta hai aur edeebi (ADB) se sambaddh asian development fund (edeeef) vishisht kosh se riyaayati daron par "sauft" loan deti hai. oseeaar (OCR) ke liye, sadasyon dvaara abhidaanit poonji, jisme bhugataan ki hui aur pratideya poonji shaamil hoti hai, praarambhik abhidaan ke liye kiye gaye bhugataan ke 50 pratishat ke anupaat mein, 1983 mein hui teesari saamaanya poonji vruddhi (GCI) ka 5 pratishat aur 1994 mein hui chauthi saamaanya pooainji vruddhi ka 2 pratishat, hai. edeebi (ADB) antaraashtreeya poonji baajaaron (intaranaishnal kaipitl market) se apni poonji ki guaranty par rin leti hai.[2]

2009 mein, edeebi ne apni saarvajanik poonji mein 200 pratishat ki vruddhi ke paanchavein satr ke liye sadasyon se yogadaan praapt kiya, yeh jnyaee20 (G20) ke netaaon ki us sambodhan ki pratikriya ke falasvaroop kiya gaya tha jisme unhonne bahupaksheeya bankon ke sansaadhan mein vruddhi ki baat ki thi jisse ki vaishvik vitt sankat ke is samay mein vikaas sheel deshon ke vikaas ko sahaayata mil sake. 2010 aur 2011 ke liye, 200 pratishat ki jeeseeaai dvaara 2010 mein 12.5-13.0 billion dollar aur 2011 mein 11.0 billion dollar ka rin de paana sambhav ho saka.[4] is vruddhi ke saath bank ka poonji aadhaar 55 billion dollar se badhkar tiguna ho gaya arthaat 165 billion dollar ho gaya.[5]

ullekhaneeya edeebi pariyojanaaen aur takaneeki sahaayata

  • Afghan daayaspora pariyojana
  • Thailand mein daksh shramikon ko laane ke liye utaah state university dvaara sanchaalit pariyojanaaen ke liye vitt poshan[krupaya uddharan jodein]
  • Indonesia mein bhookamp aur sunaami ke liye aapaatkaaleen sahaayata pariyojana
  • greater mekaang up kshetreeya kaaryakram[6]
  • aaraosi ping hoo ofashor Oil end gas development
  • fileepeens mein nagareeya gareebeei unmoolan hetu niji kshetr ke saath kootaneetik bhaageedaari
  • traans Afghanistan gas pipe line feejibiliti esesameint
  • Pakistan mein aasann aarthik sankat se use use bachaane ke liye 1.2 billion dollar ka rin usaki badhti hui oorja aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye lagaataar vitt poshan, visheshakar jal vidyut pariyojanaaon ke liye.[7]
  • sarkaar ke sanyojan se niji sansthaaon ko sookshm vitt sahaayata, jisme Bhaarat aur Pakistan shaamil the.
  • pashchimi hubei praant ke parvateeya kshetr ke yichaang-vaanjhaaoo rel maarg pariyojana aur cheen ki uttar-poorveeya chaungkving myunisipailiti. (500,000 ameriki dollar ka rin, jise 2003 mein manjoori mili).[8]

prabhaavakaarita

edeebi (ADB) ke vaarshik rin parimaan ko dekhte hue, parichaalan sambandhi aur vikaasaatmak prabhaav ke liye prashikshan adhyayan mein nivesh par pratifl uchch hone ki sambhaavana hai aur ise adhiktam karna chinta ka ek uchit vishay hai. edeebi (ADB) dvaara poshit sabhi pariyojanaaen yeh jaanane ke liye moolyaankit ki jaati hain ki inse kya parinaam praapt kiye ja rahe hain, kin sudhaaron par vichaar karne ki aavashyakta hai aur inse kya seekh milti hai.

do prakaar ke moolyaankan hote hain: svatantr aur sv-moolyaankan. sv-moolyaankan un ikaaiyon dvaara kiya jaata hai jo kisi desh mein yojana nirmaan, kaaryakram, pariyojanaaon ya takaneeki sahaayata ki gatividhiyon ko taiyaar karne aur kriyaanvit karne ke liye jimmedaar hoti hain. ismein kai saadhan sammilit hote hain, jisme pariyojana/kaaryakram ki pradarshan report, madhyaavadhi sameekshaatmak report, takaneeki sahaayata ya pariyojana/kaaryakram samaapan report aur us desh ke portfolio ki sameeksha report shaamil hain. pariyojana samaapan report mein sabhi pariyojanaaen uchit ikaaiyon dvaara sv-moolyaankit hoti hain. edeebi (ADB) ki pariyojana samaapan report usaki Internet saait par saarvajanik roop se jaari ki jaati hain. graahak sarkaaron se bhi yeh apekshit hota hai ki vah swayam ki pariyojana samaapan report taiyaar karein.

svatantr moolyaankan kisi sansthaanaatmak adhyayan ka pramukh avarodh hota hai: yeh aavashyak hai ki anubhav ke aadhaar par uchit aur uchch gunavatta yukt gyaan ke vardhit bhaag ko neeti nirmaataaon, dijaainakartaaon aur kriyaanvan karne vaalon ke haathon mein sthaanaantarit kiya jaaye edeebi (ADB) ka operation ivailyooeshan vibhaag (OED) neetiyon, yojanaaon, raashtreeya kaaryakramon aur pariyojanaaon ka vyavasthit aur nishpaksh moolyaankan karta hai, jisme unki design, kaaryaanvan, parinaam aur unase sambandhit vyaapaarik prakriyaaen shaamil hoti hain jisse ki nirdhaarit tareekon aur nirdeshon ke anusaran dvaara unke auchitya, prabhaavakaarita, kshamata aur nirantarata ka nirdhaaran kiya ja sake.[9] yeh sv-moolyaankan ko bhi maanyata deta hai. moolyaankan ki is prakriya dvaara, edeebi (ADB) kushal shaasan ke teen tatvon ka pradarshan karta hai: (i) uttaradaayitv, edeebi ke parichaalanon ki prabhaavakaarita ke moolyaaङakan ke dvaara; (ii) paaradarshita, parichaalanon ki svatantr sameeksha aur jaankaariyon va sujhaavon ki saarvajanik reporting dvaara; aur (iii) sanshodhit pradarshan, jaari aur bhavishya ke parichaalanon mein vruddhi ke liye edeebi (ADB) aur uske graahakon ko pichhle anubhavon se seekhane mein sahaayata karne ke dvaara.

edeebi (ADB) mein 1978 se moolyaankan ki shuruaat hone se parichaalanon ke moolyaankan mein parivartan aa gaya hai. shuruaat mein, pariyojana ke samaapt ho jaane par is baat ke moolyaankan par dhyaan kendrit kiya jaata tha ki pariyojana ne kis had tak apekshit aarthik aur saamaajik hitlaabh ko praapt kiya hai. ab pariyojana moolyaankan poore pariyojana chakr ke dauraan aur ek prakaar se samagr edeebi (ADB) mein nirnaya lene ki prakriya ko aakaar deta hai. 2004 mein iski svaayatt ki pratishtha ke baad se, oidi (OED) board ki vikaas prabhaavakaarita samiti dvaara seedhe edeebi (ADB) ke board of daayarektars ko report deta hai. vyavahaarik svatantrata, hit sangharshon se parihaar, baahya prabhaav se rodhan aur sansthaanaatmak svatantrata aadi ne moolyaankan ko ek samarpit upakaran bana diya hai- jo behtar star ki javaabadehi tatha vikaas sahaayata kaarya ko aur bhi behtar banaane ke liye- upayogita, vishvasaneeyata, paaradarshita aur svatantrata ke siddhaanton dvaara niyantrit hai. asian development bank ka indipeindeint ivailyueshan, edeebi mein shuruaat se hi apnaaye gaye moolyaankan drushtikon ko prastut karta hai aur aise bhavishya ki aasha karta hai jisme gyaan prabandhan ki bhoomika aur adhik mahattvapoorn ho jaaye.[10]

haal ke varshon mein, oidi (OED) ke parichaalan kaaryakram ki prakruti mein bada badlaav aaya hai aur poorv mein pratyek pariyojana ke moolyaankan ki pramukhata ke sthaan par ab vyaapak aur adhik rananeetik adhyayanon par dhyaan kendrit kiya jaata hai. moolyaankan adhyayan ke liye vareeyata praapt vishyon ke chunaav ke liye oidi (OED), edeebi (ADB) prabandhan ki development ifektivnes committee aur edeebi (ADB) ke vibhaagon aur kaaryaalayon ke pramukh padaadhikaariyon se sahaayata leti hai. vartamaan mein mahattvapoorn mudde nimn hain: (i) aur bhi adhik sudrudh kaarya paddhati ke dvaara moolyaankanon ki gunavatta badhaana; (iiI) raashtra/kshetr sahaayata kaaryakramon ko prathimkata dena; (iv) sanyukt moolyaankanon ki sankhya badhaana, (v) adhigm chakr ko chhota karne ke liye sv-moolyaankan ko maanyata dena; (vi) aur bhi sakht prabhaavi moolyaankanon ka sanchaalan; (vii) edeebi (ADB) tatha deeemasi (DMC) donon hi mein moolyaankan kshamata ka vikaas; (viii) portfolio pradarshan ko protsaahan; (ix) vyaapaar prakriyaaon ka moolyaaङakan; (x) jaankaari aur sujhaavon ka prachaar tatha unke prayog ko sunishchit karna. ek adhik spasht roop se paribhaashit parinaam nirmaan aur parinaam dhaanche mein sansthaanaatmak adhyayan par bal dene ke liye oidi (OED) ke parichaalan kaaryakramon ki punarvyaakhya bhi ki gayi hai. yeh nimn ko aparihaarya bana deta hai: (i) yojanaagat moolyaankanon (paraamarsh aur saajhedaari mein) ka sanchaalan aur prasaar,[11] (ii) pradarshan sanketakon aur moolyaankan paddhatiyon ke beech saamanjasya sthaapit karna[12] aur (iii) moolyaankan aur moolyaankan sambandhi maanasikta ki kshamata ka vikaas.[13] sabhi moolyaankan paddhatiyaan saarvajanik roop se oidi (OED) ki website par jaari ki jaati hain (niji kshetr ke kuchh moolyaankan gupt vyaapaarik jaankaari ki raksha hetu sanshodhit hote hain).[14] oidi (OED) ke moolyaankan sansaadhan, sansaadhan prakaar, vishay, kshetr aur raashtra tatha dinaank dvaara pradarshit kiya jaate hain.[15] sabhi adhyayanon ko ek online ivailyueshan infaurmeshan system par ekatr kiya jaata hai jo in adhyayanon, sujhaavon aur inke prati edeebi (ADB) ke prabandhan dvaara di gayi pratikriyaaon ka ek daataabes (aankadaakosh) prastut karta hain.[16] chal rahe moolyaankanon ki vistrut jaankaari aur unki pragati se sambandhit adyataneekaran bhi saarvajanik kiye jaate hain.[17]

2006 ki shuruaat se, edeebi (ADB) ke gyaan prabandhan dhaanche ke antargat kaarya karte hue, oidi (OED) ne gyaan pradarshan maatrikon ke prayog dvaara gyaan prabandhan ka anuprayog prashikshan adhyayan mein kiya hai.[18] edeebi (ADB) mein prashikshan adhyayan, parichaalan moolyaankan mein gyaan prabandhan ke liye yojanaagat dhaancha sthaapit karta hai.[19] jo sanshodhan kiye gaye hain ve aise hain ki ve sirf oidi (OED) mein hi naheen balki usase bhi adhik mahatvapoorn roop se sadasya raashtron aur antarraashtreeya moolyaankan samudaaya ka viks karne mein bhi mahattvapoorn siddh honge, yeh edeebi (ADB) mein anya kaaryaalayon aur vibhaagon se bhi sanmukheen roop se sambandhit rahata hai. madhyaavadhi mein, oidi (OED) sansthaanaatmak sanskruti, prabandhan pranaali, vyaapaarik prakriyaaon, infaurmeshan technology saulyushans, abhyaas samudaaya aur adhyayan prashikshan ke liye baahya sambandhon aur tantr ke sudhaar mein laga rahega. haal mein viksit gyaan sambandhi utpaadon aur suvidhaaon mein adhyayan vakr upayogi aur saral hote hain, ye do pannon vaale sankshipt va tvarit sandarbh ke roop mein hote hain jo graahakon ki vistrut shrankhala[20] se paryavekshan aur moolyaankan ki ghatnaaon ke sambandh mein ivailyueshan news report par jaankaari aur sujhaav upalabdh karaate hain.[21] ivailyueshan prastuteekaran, moolyaankan ke vishay par sankshipt chitr sahit ya power point pradarshan prastut karte hain.[22] oditing the lessons aarkitekchar, us yogadaan par prakaash daalata hai jo sansthaanaatmak adhyayan aur sansthaanaatmak svasthya ke sambandh mein gyaan pareekshan dvaara praapt kiya ja sakta hai.[23]

ab tak edeebi (ADB) ke 1,106 moolyaankit aur shreneegat pariyojanaaon mein se (December 2007 tak upalabdh jaankaari ke anusaar), 65 pratishat ko safal ke roop mein moolyaankit kiya gaya tha, 27 pratishat ko aanshik roop se safal aur 8 pratishat ko asafal ke roop mein moolyaankit kiya gaya tha.

aalochna

edeebi (ADB) ke shurooaati dinon se hi aalochak do pramukh pradaataaon, Japan aur sanyukt raajya par yeh aarop laga rahe hain ki vah vyaapak star par rin dene, neetiyon aur karmachaariyon ki bharti se sambandhit nirnayon ko prabhaavit karte hain.[24]

oksafaim Australia ne sthaaneeya samudaayon ke prati gair-sanvedanaatmak ravaiye ke liye asian development ki aalochna ki hai. "vaishvik aur antarraashtreeya par kaarya karte hue ye bank un pariyojanaaon ke maadhyam se logon ke maanav adhikaaron ko kamzor samajhte hain, jinka greebon aur adhikaaraheen samudaaya ke prati parinaam aparyaapt aur shochaneeya hai."[25] bank ko sanyukt raashtra ke paryaavaraneeya kaaryakram ki or se bhi aalochna mili, jisne ek report mein kaha "ghatit vikaas mein adhikaanshataya yahaan ki graameen janasankhya ke 70 pratishat se bhi adhik bhaag ki upeksha ki hai, jisme se adhikaansh apni aay va jeevika ke liye praakrutik sansaadhanon par nirbhar karte hain.[26]

yeh aalochna bhi ki gayi hai ki edeebi (ADB) ki vruhat stareeya pariyojanaaen dooradarshita ki kami ke kaaran saamaajik aur paryaavaraneeya kshati pahunchaati hain. edeebi (ADB) se sambandhit pariyojanaaon mein ek sarvaadhik vivaadit pariyojana Thailand ka me moh koyala-chaalit power station raha hai. paryaavaraneeya aur maanavaadhikaar kaaryakartaaon ka kehna hai ki edeebi (ADB) ki paryaavaraneeya suraksha neeti aur saath hi saath mool nivaasiyon aur anaichhik roop se vyavasthit logon ke sambandh mein neetiyaan, kaagajon mein to antarraashtreeya star ki hoti hain lekin praay: abhyaas ke dauraan unka paalan naheen kiya jaata hai, ve prabhaavakaari ho paane ki drushti se bahut hi aspasht aur kamzor hoti hain, ya seedhe shabdon mein, bank ke adhikaareeyon dvaara unhein laagoo hi naheen kiya jaata hai.[27][28]

ann sankat ke sambandh mein iski bhoomika aur auchityatata ke liye bhi bank ki ninda ki gayi hai. naagrik sabha dvaara edeebi (ADB) par yeh aarop lagaaya hai ki usane sankat ke sambandh mein di gayi chetaavaniyon ki anadekhi ki hai aur anekon logon ke vichaar mein bank ne rin ki sharton ko jaanaboojh kar aisa kar diya hai ki raashtreeya sarkaarein krushi kshetr ke nijeekaran aur viniyman ke liye vivsh ho gayeen- jisse anya samasyaaon ko janm mila jaise ki dakshinpoorv Asia mein chaaval ki aapoorti mein aayi kami, is prakaar bank ne sankat paida karne mein yogadaan hi kiya hai.[29]

viytanaam yuddh ke sevaanivrutt sainikon ne bhi laaos pariyojana ke vittaposhan hetu bank ki aalochna ki kyonki karon ke aarthik samarthan ke anusaar bank mein sanyukt raajya ki 15 pratishat hissedaari thi.[30] jab sanyukt raajya viytanaam se hat gaya to laaos ek communist raashtra ban gaya aur laaos ka gruh yuddh pathet laao dvaara jeet liya gaya, jiske sambandh mein yeh prachalit hai ki use uttar viytanaami sena ka samarthan mila tha.

2009 mein, bank ne Bhaarat mein prastaavit pariyojana ke liye 2.9 billion dollar ke yojanaagat kosh ko manjoori de di hai. is yojana ke antargat pariyojanaaen maatr sanketaatmak theen aur unhein abhi aage bhi bank ke board of daayarektars se manjoori praapt karne ki aavashyakta thi; haalaanki, peeaarasi (PRC) videsh mantraalaya ke pravakta kin gang ne yeh daava kiya ki, "asian development bank ne, cheen ki tamaam chintaaon ke baavajood bhi, Bhaarat raashtra ke saath saajhedaari yojana ko manjoor kar liya, jisme cheen aur Bhaarat ke beech ka kshetreeya vivaad bhi shaamil hai. cheen ne is vishay par kada asantosh vyakt kiya hai... bank ki yeh gatividhi sirf bank ke naam ko hi malin nahi karti hai balki iske sadasyon ke hiton ki bhi avhelna karti hai.[31]

sadasya

Asiaee vikaas bank - devalaping member kantreej (DMC) ka vikaas kramaagati charan[32][52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]

edeebi (ADB) mein 67 sadasya hain (2 fravari 2007 tak praapt jaankaari ke anusaar).[33] unheen naamon ka prayog kiya gaya hai jinhein edeebi (ADB) dvaara maanyata praapt hai.
kisi sadasya ke naam ke baad likhe varsh yeh pradarshit karte hain ki vah kitni avadhi se sadasya hai. edeebi ke sabse bade share dhaarakon mein Japan aur sanyukt raashtra hain, jinmein se pratyek 15.57 pratishat share ka svaami hai.[34] jab koi raashtra iska sadasya naheen rah jaata to, bank, is lekh ke parichhed 3 aur 4 ke anusaar, us raashtra ke saath khaate ka niptaara karne ke uddeshya se us raashtra ke share ko swayam hi pun: khareedne ka prayaas karta hai.[35]

cheeni ganatantr (taaivaan) ne pehle sansthaapak sadasya ke roop mein poore cheen ka pratinidhitv karte hue cheen ke naam se sadasyata li thi. haalaanki, bank ki poonji mein usaki hissedaari taaivaan ki poonji par hi aadhaarit hi thi, yeh varls bank aur aaiemaef (IMF) se bhinn pranaali thi jahaan taaivaan ki sarkaar ko poore cheen ke pratinidhitv ke anusaar hissedaari praapt thi, aisa sirf cheen ke peepals ripblik dvaara sadasyata lene aur cheeni ganatantr ka sthaan lene se poorv tak hi tha. 1986 mein, jab cheen ke peepals ripblik ne sadasyata li to kuchh samjhaute prabhaavit hue. aaraosi (ROC) ko apni sadasyata banaaye rakhane ki anumati thi, lekin taaipei, cheen ke naam se - yeh ek aisa naam tha jiska vah virodh kar rahe the. vishisht roop se, yeh taaivaan strets ke donon chhoron ko sanstha mein pratinidhitv ki anumati deta hai.

Asiaee aur prashaant kshetr : 48 sadasya
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan (1966)
Flag of Australia.svg Australia (1966)
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia (1966)
Flag of India.svg India (1966)
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia (1966)
Flag of Japan.svg Japan (1966)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Korea, Republic of (1966)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Lao People's Democratic Republic (1966)
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia (1966)
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal (1966)
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand (1966)
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan (1966)
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines (1966)
Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa (1966)
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore (1966)
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka (1966)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Republic of China[36] (1966)
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand (1966)
Flag of Vietnam.svg Viet Nam, Socialist Republic of (1966)
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong, China[37] (1969)
Flag of Fiji.svg Fiji (1970)
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea (1971)
Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga (1972)
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh (1973)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Myanmar (1973)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Solomon Islands (1973)
Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati (1974)
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg Cook Islands (1976)
Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives (1978)
Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu (1981)
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan (1982)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade China, People's Republic of (1986)
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg Marshall Islands (1990)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Micronesia, Federated States of (1990)
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia (1991)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Nauru (1991)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Tuvalu (1993)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kazakhstan (1994)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kyrgyzstan (1994)
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan (1995)
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan (1998)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan (1999)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Turkmenistan (2000)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Timor-Leste (2002)
Flag of Palau.svg Palau (2003)
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia (2005)
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Brunei Darussalam (2006)
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia (2007)
anya kshetr : 19 sadasya
Flag of Austria.svg Austria (1966)
Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium (1966)
Flag of Canada.svg Canada (1966)
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark (1966)
Flag of Finland.svg Finland (1966)
Flag of Germany.svg Germany[38] (1966)
Flag of Italy.svg Italy (1966)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands (1966)
Flag of Norway.svg Norway (1966)
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden (1966)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom (1966)
Flag of the United States.svg United States (1966)
Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland (1967)
Flag of France.svg France (1970)
Flag of Spain.svg Spain (1986)
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey (1991)
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (2002)
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg (2003)
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland (2006)

sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram

sanyukt raashtron ne 1978 mein asian development bank, world bank aur vishv ke anya kai bade bankon ki sahaayata se development business ki shuruaat ki. aaj, development business sabhi bade bahupaksheeya development bankon, sanyukt raashtron ki sansthaaon aur kai raashtreeya sarkaaron ke liye praathamik prakaashan hai, jinme se kai ab apni nividaaon aur sanvidaaon ka prakaashan development business mein karavaane ko anivaarya aavashyakta bana chuke hain.[39]

sandarbh

  1. http://www.adb.org/About/management.asp
  2. a aa i E u oo A ai [|Ming, Wan] (Winter, 1995-1996). "Japan and the Asian Development Bank". Pacific Affairs (University of British Columbia) 68 (4): 509–528. doi:10.2307/2761274. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2761274. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-16.
  3. Asiaee vikaas bank (2008). sadasyata. yooaarael (URL) (17 September 2010 ko abhigm)
  4. "The Fifth General Capital Increase of the Asian Development Bank". ADB Policy Papers (ADB). March 2009. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=2148473. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-16.
  5. "General Capital Increase V". ADB Infocus (ADB). April 2010. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Brochures/InFocus/2010/General-Capital-Increase-V.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-16.
  6. Greater Mekong Subregion. Asian Development Bank. 19 November 2007. http://www.adb.org/GMS/default.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-10
  7. http://feeds.bignewsnetwork.com/index.php?sid=443457
  8. rin (LOAN): peeaarasi (PRC) 35339-01.cheen, peepals ripblik of: yichaing-vainjho railway project (edeebi (ADB) site)
  9. how edeebi (ADB) ivailyooets its paulisi end opareshans - ADB.org
  10. Asiaee vikaas bank par svatantr moolyaankan - ADB.org
  11. sansaadhan - Asiaee vikaas bank par svatantr moolyaankan
  12. saamanjasya kaarya - Asiaee vikaas bank mein moolyaankan (edeebi (ADB)) - ADB.org
  13. edeebi (ADB) ke vikaasasheel sadasya deshon mein moolyaankan kshamata vikaas
  14. Asiaee vikaas bank par svatantr moolyaankan - ADB.org
  15. moolyaankan report - ADB.org
  16. edeebi (ADB) moolyaankan soochana pranaali
  17. Asia aur prashaant mein edeebi (ADB) paulisi aur operation ke onagoing moolyaankan - ADB.org
  18. parinaam se sampark
  19. edeebi (ADB) mein shiksha praapt karna: saamarik fremavark, 2007-2009 - ADB.org
  20. moolyaankan report - ADB.org
  21. moolyaankan report - ADB.org
  22. [1]
  23. shiksha ke vaastukala ko pareekshan karna - ADB.org
  24. Kilby, Christopher (2002). "Donor Influence in MDBs: The Case of the Asian Development Bank". The Review of International Organizations 68 (4): 509–528. http://www.williams.edu/Economics/neudc/papers/ADB.3.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-16.
  25. oksafam Australia."mekaang aur Asiaee vikaas bank
  26. IPS (IPS). "yooenaipi (UNEP) faults asian development project."
  27. " lokal kansarns ignord laarj-skel edeebi (ADB) projekts draw kritisijm"
  28. NGO (NGO) ne edeebi (ADB) ki aalochna ki aur gareebi kam karne ki kshamata par savaal uthaae
  29. edeebi (ADB) too mit emid food kraaisis, groing povarti"
  30. Walsh, Denny (2008-04-23). "Laos plot case back in federal court". Sacramento Bee. http://www.sacbee.com/101/story/882584.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-23. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  31. "China slams ADB over India funding". SINA English. 2009-06-19. http://english.sina.com/china/2009/0618/249531.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-24.
  32. edeebi kramaagati neeti
  33. Asiaee vikaas bank (2008). sadasyata. yooaarael (URL) (18 April 2010 ko abhigm)
  34. Members. Asian Development Bank. 9 fravari 2007. http://www.adb.org/About/members.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-10
  35. "Withdrawal and Suspension of Members, Temporary Suspension and Termination of Operations of the Bank". Agreement Establishing the Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Charter/chap07.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-10
  36. taaipi, edeebi (ADB) website par cheen ke profaail 1986 tak jab peepals ripblik of China shaamil hue poore cheen ko pratinidhitv karte hue cheen ke roop mein shaamil ho gaye.
  37. "Hongkong ke roop mein shaamil hue"
  38. sadasya sansthaapak, pashchim Germany ke roop mein shaamil hue.
  39. sanyukt raashtra vikaas business' website

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari links