Arun (grah)

Arun Astronomical symbol of Uranus
Uranus as seen by Voyager 2
Uranus presented a featureless disk to Voyager 2 in 1986. Its appearance reflects the presence of a high-altitude hydrocarbon photochemical haze overlying clouds of methane, which in turn overlie clouds of hydrogen sulfide and/or ammonia (below these are additional unseen cloud decks of different compositions). The blue-green coloration results from the absorption bands of methane.
khoj
khoj karta William Herschel
khoj ki tithi March 13, 1781
upanaam
visheshan Uranian
yug J2000
upasaur
  • 3,004,419,704 km
  • 20.083 305 26 AU
apasaur
  • 2,748,938,461 km
  • 18.375 518 63 AU
ardh mukhya aksh
  • 2,876,679,082 km
  • 19.229 411 95 AU
vikendrata 0.044 405 586
parikraman kaal
  • 30,799.095 days
  • 84.323 326 yr
  • 42,718 Uranus solar days[2]
sanyuti kaal 369.66 days[3]
ausat parikraman gati 6.81 km/s[3]
maadhya konaantar 142.955 717°
jhukaav 0.772 556° to Ecliptic
6.48° to Sun's equator
1.02° to Invariable plane[4]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 73.989 821°
Argument of perihelion 96.541 318°
upagrah 27
bhautik visheshataaeain
vishuvateeya trijya 25,559 ± 4 km
4.007 Earths[5][b]
dhruveeya trijya 24,973 ± 20 km
3.929 Earths[5][b]
sapaatata 0.022 9 ± 0.000 8[c]
paridhi 159,354.1 km[6]
tal-kshetrafal 8.115 6×a109 km2[6][b]
15.91 Earths
aayatan 6.833×a1013 km3[3][b]
63.086 Earths
dravyamaan (8.6810 ± 0.0013)×a1025 kg
14.536 Earths[7]
GM=5 793 939 ± 13 km3/s2
maadhya ghanatv 1.27 g/cm3[3][b]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 8.69 m/s2[3][b]
0.886 g
palaayan veg 21.3 km/s[3][b]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
0.718 33 day (Retrograde)
17 h 14 min 24 s[5]
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 2.59 km/s
9,320 km/h
aksheeya naman 97.77°[5]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan 17 h 9 min 15 s
257.311°[5]
uttari dhruvavanaman −15.175°[5]
albedo 0.300 (Bond)
0.51 (geom.)[3]
satah ka taapamaan
1 bar level[9]
0.1 bar
(tropopause)[10]
nyoon maadhya adhi
76 K
49 K 53 K 57 K
spasht parimaan 5.9[8] to 5.32[3]
koneeya vyaas 3.3"–4.1"[3]
vaayu-mandal[10][11][12][d]
skel haait 27.7 km[3]
sanghatan (Below 1.3 bar)
83 ± 3% hydrogen (H2)
15 ± 3% helium (He)
2.3% methane (CH4)
0.009%
(0.007–0.015%)
hydrogen deuteride (HD)[13]

Ices:

  • ammonia (NH3)
  • water (H2O)
  • ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
  • methane ice (?) (CH4•a5.75H2O)

Arun (Uranus), ya yoorenas hamaare saur mandal mein soorya se saatavaaain grah hai. vyaas ke aadhaar par yeh saur mandal ka teesara bada aur dravyamaan ke aadhaar par chautha bada grah hai. dravyamaan mein yeh pruthvi se 14.5 guna adhik bhaari aur akaar mein pruthvi se 63 guna adhik bada hai. ausat roop mein dekha jaae to pruthvi se bahut kam ghana hai - kyonki pruthvi par patthar aur anya bhaari padaarth adhik pratishat mein hain jabki Arun par gas adhik hai. iseeliye pruthvi se tiresath guna bada akaar rakhane ke baad bhi yeh pruthvi se keval saadhe chaudah guna bhaari hai. haalaanki Arun ko bina doorabeen ke aaainkh se bhi dekha ja sakta hai, yeh itna door hai aur itni maadhyam roshani ka prateet hota hai ke praacheen vidvaanon ne kabhi bhi ise grah ka darja naheen diya aur ise ek door timtimaata taara hi samjha.[14] 13 March 1781 mein William harashal ne iski khoj ki ghoshana curry. Arun doorabeen dvaara paae jaane wala pehla grah tha.

hamaare saur mandal mein chaar grahon ko gas daanav kaha jaata hai, kyonki inmein mitti-patthar ki bajaay adhiktar gas hai aur inka aakaar bahut hi vishaal hai. Arun iname se ek hai - baaki teen bruhaspati, shani aur varun (naiptayoon) hain. inmein se Arun ki banaavat varun se bahut milti-julati hai. Arun aur varun ke vaataavaran mein bruhaspati aur shani ke tulana mein barf adhik hai - paani ki barf ke atirikt inmein jami hui amoniya aur methane gaison ki barf bhi hai. isliye kabhi-kabhi khagolashaastri in donon ko "barfeele gas daanav" naam ki shreni mein daal dete hain. saur mandal ke saare grahon mein se Arun ka vaayumandal sab se thanda paaya gaya hai aur usaka nyoonatam taapamaan -49 kailvin (yaani -224° senteegred) dekha gaya hai. is grah mein baadalon ki kai tahein dekhi gayi hain. maanana hai ke sab se neeche paani ke baadal hain aur sab se oopar methane gas ke baadal hain. yeh bhi maana jaata hai ki yadi kisi prakaar Arun ke bilkul beech jaakar iska kendra dekha ja sakta to vahaaain barf aur patthar paae jaate.[15]

anukram

kaksha aur ghoornan

yurenas pratyek 84 pruthvi varshon mein soorya ka ek chakkar lagaata hai, iski soorya se ausat doori lagbhag 3 arab ki॰mee॰ (20 kh.E.) hai I
habal space teleeskop ke nikmos camera dvaara praapt 1998 ki yoorenas ki banaavati-rang ki ek nikat avarakt chhavi, baadal ki dhaariyon, chhallon aur chandramaaon ko dikha raha hai I

yurenas pratyek 84 pruthvi varshon mein soorya ka ek chakkar lagaata hai. iski soorya se ausat doori lagbhag 3 arab ki॰mee॰ (20 kh.E.) hai. yurenas par soorya prakaash ki teevrata pruthvi par ki tulana mein lagbhag 1/1400 hai.[16] sabse pehle iske kaksheeya tatvon ki ganana 1783 mein piyre-seemon laaplaas dvaara ki gayi thi |[17] samay ke saath, anumaanit aur avalokit kakshaaon ke beech ki visangatiyaan najar aani shuroo ho gayi aur 1841 mein John kaauch edams ne sabse pehle prastaavit kiya ki yeh antar kisi adrushya grah ke gurutvaakarshan khinchaav ke kaaran ho sakta hai. 1845 mein, urbain li verriyer ne yoorenas ki kaksha par apna svatantr anusandhaan shuroo kiya | 23 September 1846 ko johaan gotafraaid gaale ne ek naya grah khoja, baad mein iska naam nepachyoon rakha gaya, yeh li verriyer dvaara anumaan lagaain gayi sthiti ke kareeb tha. [18]

yurenas ke bheetar ki ghoornan avadhi 17 ghante, 14 minute hai. sabhi mahaakaaya grahon ki tarah, iska upari vaayumandal bhi ghoornan ki disha mein bahut shaktishaali havaaon ko mahasoos karta hai. kuchh akshaanshon par jaise ki bhoomadhya rekha se dakshin dhruv ki or ke do-tihaai raaste par, vaataavaran ki drushya aakrutiyaan bahut teji se chalti hai aur chhote se chhota 14 ghanton ka ek poorn ghoornan banaati hai.[19]

aksheeya jhukaav

yurenas ka aksheeya jhukaav 97.77 degree hai, isliye iski ghoornan dhoori sauramandal tal ke saath kareeb kareeb samaanaantar hai. yeh usako anya pramukh grahon ke vipreet poori tarah se bhinn mausami parivartan deta hai. anya grah sauramandal tal par dolate lattuon ki tarah ghoomate hue dekhe ja sakte hai, jabki yurenas ek dolati ludhkati geind ki tarah paribhraman karta hai. yurenas sankraanti ke vakt ke kareeb, ek dhruv lagaataar soorya ke saamane rahata hai jabki doosra dhruv pare rahata hai. keval bhoomadhyarekha ke aaspaas ka sankara patta drut din-raat ke chakron ko mahasoos karta hai, lekin kshitij par bahut neeche soorya ke saath saath jis tarah se pruthvi ke dhruveeya kshetron mein hota hai. yoorenas ki kaksha ke doosari or par soorya ke saamane ke dhruvon ka abhivinyaas ulat hai. pratyek dhruv 42 varshon ke aaspaas lagaataar ujaala paata hai, fir agale 42 varsh aaindhere mein gujaarata hai.[20] vishuvon ke samay ke paas, soorya yurenas ke vishuvavrutt ke saamane hota hai aur din-raat ke chakron ki ek samayaavadhi deta hai, usi tarah jaisi vah adhiktar anya grahon mein dekhi gayi. yurenas apne sabse haal ke vishuv par 7 December 2007 ko pahuncha |[21][22]

uttari golaardh varsh dakshini golaardh
dakshinaayan 1902, 1986 uttaraayan
vasant-vishuv 1923, 2007 sharad-vishuv
uttaraayan 1944, 2028 dakshinaayan
sharad-vishuv 1965, 2049 vasant-vishuv

is aksheeya jhukaav ka ek parinaam yeh hai ki, varsh ke ausat kaal mein, yurenas ke dhruveeya kshetr iske bhoomadhyarekheeya kshetron ki tulana mein soorya se niveshit oorja ka vruhattar hissa praapt karte hai. fir bhi yurenas, apne dhruvon par ki tulana mein apni bhoomadhyarekha par jyaada tapt hai. iske liye uttaradaayi antarnihit tantr agyaat hai. yoorenas ke asaamaanya dhuriya jhukaav ka kaaran bhi nishchitta ke saath gyaat naheen hai, lekin hamesha ki tarah atkalein yeh hai ki sauramandal nirmaan ke dauraan, ek pruthvi ke aakaar ka aadigrah yoorenas ke saath takaraaya aur is visham abhivinyaas ka kaaran bana |[23] 1986 mein voejar 2 ke gujaare ke samay yoorenas ka dakshin dhruv takareeban seedhe soorya ki or tha. grah ke ghoornan ki disha ke maujood hone ke baavajood, "dakshin" ke roop mein pehchaan ke liye iska dhruv haal ke antarraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh dvaara samarthit paribhaasha ka upayog karta hai. arthaat ki grah ya upagrah ka uttari dhruv vah dhruv hoga jo sauramandal ke avikaari tal ke oopar ki or hoga. [24][25] kabhi kabhi ek bhinn paripaati prayog ki jaati hai, jismein ek pind ke uttar aur dakshin dhruvon ko ghoornan ki disha ke sambandh mein dakshin-hast niyam ke anusaar paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.[26] is doosari nirdeshaank pranaali ki sharton mein yoorenas ka uttar dhruv vah tha jo 1986 mein soorya ki or tha.

drushyata

1995 se 2006 tak, yoorenas ka aabhaasi parimaan + 5.6 aur + 5.9 ke beech ghatata-badhta raha, nagn aankhon ki drushyata ki seema ke theek bheetar rakhane par parimaan + 6.5 ka hota hai.[8] iska koneeya vyaas 3.4 aur 3.7 aark sekand hai, tulana ke liye shani grah ke liye 16 se 20 aark sekand aur bruhaspati ke liye 32 se 45 aark sekand hai.[8] vimukhata par, yurenas raatri aakaash mein nagn aaainkhon se dikhta hai aur doorabeen ke saath shahari parivesh mein bhi ek aasaan lakshya ban jaata hai.[6] 15 aur 23 se.mi. vyaas ke bade shaukiya doorabeenon mein ke saath, yeh grah ek halki hari neeli chakati ke jaisa najar aata hai. 25 se.mi. ya isse vyaapak ki ek badi doorabeen ke saath, baadal ke svaroop ko, yahaaain tak ki kuchh bade upagrahon ko, jaise ki taaiteniya aur oberon ko, dekh sakte hai.[27]

aatanrik sanrachana

pruthvi aur yoorenas ke aakaar ki tulana
yoorenas ke bheetar ka aarekh

yurenas ka dravyamaan pruthvi ki tulana mein 14.5 guna hai, jo vruhadaakaar grahon mein sabse kam hai. iski trijya nepchoon ki tulana mein thodi si jyaada aur pruthvi ki trijya ki chaar guna hai. nateejatan, 1.27 gra./se.mi.3 ka ghanatv yurenas ko shani ke baad sabse kam ghana grah banaata hai.[5][7] yeh maan ingit karta hai ki yeh mukhya roop se vibhinn prakaar ke barfon se bana hai, jaise ki jal, amoniya aur methane |[9] yoorenas ke aantarik bhaag mein barf ki samagr maatra theek se gyaat naheen hai, model ke chunaav ke hisaab se alag alag aankade ubharakar saamane aate hai, yeh pruthvi ke dravyamaan ke 9.3 aur 13.5 ke beech hona chaahiye |[9][28] haaidrojan aur heeliym samagr ka keval ek chhota sa hissa banaate hai (0.5 aur 1.5 pruthvi dravyamaan ke beech) |[9] shesh gair-barf ki maatra (0.5 se 3,7 pruthvi dravyamaan) chattaani saamagri se bani hai.[9]

yoorenas sanrachana ka maanak model yeh hai ki yeh grah teen paraton se bana hai: kendra mein ek chattaani kor (siliket/loha-nikal), madhya mein ek barfeela meintal aur ek baahari gaiseeya (haaidrojan/heeliym) chhilka |[9][29] kor 0.55 pruthvi dravyamaan ke saath apekshaakrut chhota hai aur trijya yurenas ki 20% trijya se kam hai, meintal 13.4 pruthvi dravyamaan ke saath grah ki ek badi raashi sammilit karta hai, jabki oopari vaayumandal 0.5 pruthvi dravyamaan ki taul ke saath tulanaatmak roop se avaastavik hai aur yurenas ke aakhiri kinaare ki 20% trijya par vistaarit hai.[9][29] yurenas ke kor ka ghanatv 9 gram/se.mi.3 ke aaspaas hai, kendra mein 80 lakh baar (800 geega paaskal) ka dabaav aur lagbhag 5000 kelvin ka taapamaan hai.[28][29] barf meintal paaramparik arthon mein vaastav mein barf ka bana hua naheen hai, balki ek garm aur ghane taral padaarth ka hai jo amoniya, paani aur anya vaashpasheel padaarthon se milkar bana hai.[9][29] is taral padaarth ke paas ek uchch vidyut chaalakata hai, jise kabhi kabhi ek taral-amoniya saagar kahalaata hai.[30] yoorenas aur nepchyoon ki adhikaansh sanrachana, bruhaspati aur shani ki tulana mein bahut alag hain, gaison par barf haavi hai, isliye barf daanav ke roop mein unke pruthak vargeekaran ko sahi thaharaaya jaata hai. vahaaain aayanit jal ki ek parat ho sakti hai, jahaan paani ke anu haaidrojan aur okseejan aayanon ke ek soop ke roop mein toot jaate hai aur iske neeche gahre mein paraaaayanit jal (sperionic water) hai, jismein okseejan kristaleekrut hota hai kintu haaidrojan aayan okseejan ke jaaleedaar dhaaainche ke bheetar aajaadi se ghoomta firta hai.[31]

haalaanki model yathochit maanak ke oopar ka maana gaya, par yeh adviteeya naheen hai, anya model bhi avalokanon ko santusht karte hai. udaaharanaarth, agar haaidrojan aur chattaani saamagri ki paryaapt maatra barf meintal mein mishrit hui hain, to aatanrik bhaag mein barf ki kul maatra kam ho jaayegi aur isi tarah chattaanon aur haaidrojan ki maatra adhik ho jaayegi | vartamaan mein upalabdh aankade, kaun sa model sahi hai iske nirdhaaran ki vigyaan ko anumati naheen deta hai.[28] yoorenas ki taral padaarth yukt aantarik sanrachana ka matlab hai ki iski koi thos satah naheen hai. gaiseeya vaataavaran bheetari taral paraton mein dheere dheere ghulata milta hai.[9] suvidha ke liye, ek parikrami chapate upagol ko us bindu par nirdhaarit kiya gaya hai jis par vaayumandaleeya daab 1 baar (100 geega paaskal) ke baraabar hai aur saath hi ise ek "satah" ke roop mein naamit kiya gaya hai. iski vishuvavruttiya aur dhruveeya trijya kramash: 25,559 ± 4 aur 24,973 ± 20 ki॰mee॰ hai.[5] yeh satah oonchaai ke liye ek shoonya bindu ke roop mein is lekh mein istemaal ki jaayegi |

aantarik taap

yoorenas ka aantarik taap spasht roop se anya vruhadaakaar grahon ki tulana mein kam jaan padta hai, khagoleeya shabdon mein, iske paas ek nimn taapeeya pravaah hai.[32][33] yurenas ka aatanrik taapamaan itna kam kyon hai yeh abhi bhi samajh se pare hai. nepchoon, jo ki aakaar aur sanrachana mein yurenas ka dviguna hai, 2.61 guna jyaada oorja antariksh mein vikrit karta hai jitna ki vah soorya se praapt karta hai.[32] yoorenas dvaara avarakt varnakram (yaani garmi) ke bhaag se chhodi gayi kul shakti, uske apne vaataavaran mein avashoshit saur oorja ki 1.06 ± 0.08 guna hai.[10][34] vaastav mein, yoorenas ka taapeeya pravaah keval 0.042 ± 0.047 vaut/mi2 hai, jo 0.075 vaut/mi2 ke lagbhag pruthvi ke aantarik taapeeya pravaah se kam hai.[34] yurenas ke tropopaaus mein darj hua nimnatam taapamaan 49 kelvin (-224 °ase.) hai, jo yurenas ko sauramandal mein sabse thanda grah banaata hai.[10][34]

is visangati ke liye ek parikalpana sujhaav deti hai ki jab yoorenas ek vishaalakaaya prahaareet nikaaya dvaara thonka gaya, yoorenas ki adhikaansh aadya garmi ke nishkaasan ka kaaran bana, yeh garmi ek samaapt ho chuke kor taapamaan ke saath chhodi gayi thi |[35] ek anya parikalpana hai ki yoorenas ke oopari paraton mein kisi tarah ka avarodh maujood hai jo kor ki garmi ko satah tak pahuainchane se rokata hai.[9] udaaharan ke liye, sanvahan sanrachanaatmak roop se bhinn paraton ke ek samooh mein jagah le sakta hai, jo oopar ki or gamit taap parivhan ko baadhit kar sakta hain,[10][34] yeh sambhav hai ki dohara vaachaal sanvahan ek seemit kaarak ho |[9]

chumbakeeya kshetr

1986 mein vauyejar 2 dvaara avalokit yurenas ka chumbakeeya kshetr. S aur N dakshini aur uttari chumbakeeya dhruv hai.

vauyejar 2 ki pahuainch se pehle, yurenas ke maignetosfeyar ka koi bhi maapan naheen liya gaya tha, iseeliye iski prakruti ek rahashya bani rahi | 1986 se pehle, khagolavidon ne yurenas ke chumbakeeya kshetr ko saur vaayu ke saath ki rekha mein hone ki ummeed thi, iske baad iska grah ke dhruvon ke saath Milan ho gaya jo ki kraantivrutt mein sthit hai.[36]

vauyejar ke avalokanon ne darshaaya ki do kaaranon se yurenas ka chumbakeeya kshetr vishisht hai, ek to kyonki yeh grah ke jyaamiteeya kendra se aarambh naheen hota hai aur doosra kyonki yeh ghoorni aksh se 59° par jhuka hai.[36][37] vaastav mein yeh chumbakeeya dvidhruv grah ke kendra se dakshin ghoorni dhruv ki or graheeya vyaas ke adhiktam ek tihaai jitna khisak gaya hai.[36] uchch asamamiteeya maignetosfeyar mein is apratyaashit jyaamiteeya parinaamasvaroop, jahaan dakshini ardhaagolaardh mein ki satah par chumbakeeya kshetr ka saamarthya nimnatam 0.1 gaus (10 µaT) ho sakta hai, isi tarah uttari ardhaagolaardh mein yeh uchchatam 1.1 gaus (110 µaT) ho sakta hai.[36] satah par ausat kshetr bal 0.23 gaus (23 µaT) hai.[36] tulana ke liye, pruthvi ka chumbakeeya kshetr mote taur par donon dhruv par shaktishaali hai aur 'chumbakeeya bhoomadhyarekha ' mote taur par apni bhaugolik bhoomadhyarekha ke saath samaanaantar hai.[37]

chandrama

yurenas ke pramukh chandrama, unke uchit saapeksh aakaar aur elbido par badhti doori ke kram mein (baaen se daaen) . (vauyejar 2 se praapt tasveerein)
yurenas pranaali

yurenas ke 27 gyaat praakrutik upagrah hai.[38] in upagrahon ke liye naamon ko sheksapeeyar aur alekjeindar Pope ki krutiyon ke paatron se chuna gaya hai.[29][39] paanch mukhya upagrah hai : miraanda, eriyl, ambriyl, taaiteniya aur oberaun |[29] yeh yurenas upagraheeya pranaali gas daanavon ke beech sabse kam badi hai; sachmuch, in pramukh upagrahon ka sanyukt dravyamaan akele traaiton ke aadhe se bhi kam hoga. [7] in upagrahon mein sabse bade, taaiteniya, ki trijya maatr 788.9 ki.mi, ya chaaaind ke aadhe se bhi kam hai, parantu shani ke doosare sabse bade chandrama riya se thodi si jyaada hai, jo taaiteniya ko sauramandal mein aanthavaaain sabse bada chandrama banaata hai. in chandramaaon ka apekshaakrut nimn elbido ka vichran ambriyl ke liye 0.20 se eriyl ke liye 0.35 hai (hare prakaash mein) |[40] yeh chandrama ek sanpeedit barfeeli-chattaanein hai, jo mote taur par pachaas pratishat barf aur pachaas pratishat chattaan se bani hai. yeh barf, amoniya aur kaarban daaiaaksaaid ko sammilit kiye ho sakte hai.[41][42]

in upagrahon mein se, eriyl ki satah kuchhek sanghaat ke saath naveekrut jaan padti hai, jabki ambriyl ki puraani najar aati hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; horizons naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; CSeligman naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. a aa i E u oo A ai O au sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; fact naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; meanplane naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  5. a aa i E u oo A ai O sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Seidelmann_Archinal_A.27hearn_et_al._2007 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  6. a aa i "NASA's Uranus fact sheet". http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/uranusfact.html. abhigman tithi: June 13, 2007.
  7. a aa i sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Jacobson_Campbell_et_al._1992 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  8. a aa i Espenak, Fred (2005). "Twelve Year Planetary Ephemeris: 1995 – 2006". NASA. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. https://archive.is/X9zZ. abhigman tithi: June 14, 2007.
  9. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Podolak_Weizman_et_al._1995 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  10. a aa i E u sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Lunine_1993 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  11. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Lindal_Lyons_et_al._1987 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  12. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Conrath_Gautier_et_al._1987 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  13. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Feuchtgruber1999 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  14. "MIRA's Field Trips to the Stars Internet Education Program". Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy. http://www.mira.org/fts0/planets/101/text/txt001x.htm. abhigman tithi: August 27, 2007.
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}}

the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
soorya · budh · shukr · pruthvi · mangal · seerees · bruhaspati · shani · Arun · varun · yam · haumeya · maakemaake · eris
grah · bauna grah · upagrah - chandrama · mangal ke upagrah · kshudragrah · bruhaspati ke upagrah · shani ke upagrah · Arun ke upagrah · varun ke upagrah · yam ke upagrah · eris ke upagrah
chhoti vastueain: ulka · kshudragrah (kshudragrah gheraa‎) · kinnar · varun-paar vastueain (kaaipar gheraa‎/bikhra chakr) · dhoomaketu (aurt baadal)


sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.

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