Algeria

Algeria ka jan-lokatantreeya ganaraajya

اaaلaaجaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaجaaزaaاaaئaaرaaيaaة اaaلaaدaaيaaمaaقaaرaaاaaطaaيaaة اaaلaaشaaعaaبaaيaaة (arabi)
Tagduda Tadzayrit Tamagdayt Taɣaerfant (barbar)
dhvaj chinh
raashtravaakya: بaaاaaلaaشaaّaaعaaب وaaلaaلaaشaaّaaعaaب (language?)
"logon dvaara aur logon ke liye"[1][2]
raashtragaan: Kassaman
ham pran lete hain
baahari aavaaj: •[3]
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
aljeeyars
36°a42′aN 3°a13′aE / 36.7°aN 3.217°aE / 36.7; 3.217
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi[4]
Other languages[5] saaaincha:Vunblist
maanavajaateeya varg [5] saaaincha:Vunblist
nivaasi aljeeriyaai
sarkaar ekaatmak arddh raashtrapati ganaraajya
- raashtrapati abdelaajij bauteflika
- pradhaan mantri abdelamaalek sellaal
vidhaan mandal sansad
- uchch sadan raashtra ki parishad
- nimn sadan logon ki raashtreeya sabha
svatantrata fraans se
- maanyata praapti 3 July 1962
- ghoshit 5 July 1962
kshetrafal
- kul 2381741 varg kilometer (10th)
919595 varg meal
- jal (%) upekshaneeya
janasankhya
- 2012 janaganana 37,900,000[6]
- 2008 janaganana 34,080,030[7]
- ghanatv 14.6/varg kimi (206vaaain)
37.9/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2012 praakkalan
- kul $272.866 billion$[8] (47vaaain)
- prati vyakti $7,477$[8] (100vaaain)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2012 praakkalan
- kul $207.794 billion$[8] (49th)
- prati vyakti $5,693$[8] (93vaaain)
gini (1995) 35.3[9]
madhyam
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.713[10]
uchch · 93vaan
mudra aljeeriyaai dinaar (DZD)
samay mandal CET (UTC+01)
yaataayaat chaalan disha right[11]
doorabhaash koot +213
ISO 3166 code DZ
Internet teeeladi saaaincha:Vunblist
a. ^ The CIA World Factbook states that about 15% of Algerians, a minority, identify as Berber even though almost all Algerians have Berber origins instead of Arab origins. The Factbook explains that of the approximately 15% who identify as Berber, most live in Kabylie, more closely identify with Berber heritage instead of Arab heritage, and are Muslim.

Algeria (arabi: اaaلaaجaaزaaاaaئaaر‎, al-jjaayar; fraanseesi: Algéarie; barbar: ⴷaaⵣaaⴰaaⵢaaⴻaaⵔ jaayer), adhikaarik taur par Algeria ka jan-lokatantreeya ganaraajya aur jisko rasami taur par lokatantreeya aur log-pyaara alajeeriyaayi ganaraajya[12] bhi kaha jaata hai, afreeka ke maghareb kshetr mein sthit ek desh hai jiski rajdhani aur sabse adhik aabaadi wala shahar aljeeyars hai.

vartamaan Algeria ka kshetr bahut saari praacheen sabhyataaeain, jaise ateryaayi aur kaipasiyn, ki prushthabhoomi thi. is ilaake par bahut saltanaton aur raajya-kulon ka shaasan raha hai jis mein numidiyaayi, karathaaginyaayi, roman, vandal, bijaanteen, arabi umayyad, barbar faatimeed aur alamohaad aur peechhe ke Turkey otoman shaamil hain.

aaljeeriya 48 soobon aur 1541 praganon wala arddh raashtrapati pradhaan ganaraajya hai. 3.7 karod se adhik aabaadi se yeh vishv ka 34vaaain sabse badh aabaadi wala desh hai. bhaashaai taur par yeh arabi mulk hai jiski kuchh sthaanik boliyaaain (upabhaashaaeain) hain. iski arth vyavastha tel-aadhaarit hai jo dach rog (arth-shaatr ki ek dhaarana) se prabhaavit hai. sonaataraach, jo ki raashtreeya tel-company hai, Africa mein sabse badi hai. iski sena Africa aur arab-jagat mein misr ke baad sabse badi hai aur roos aur cheen iske yuddhanaitik ehatiyaati mulk aur sastar poortikrta hain.

2,381,741 varg ki॰ami ke kshetrafl se yeh duniya ka dasavaaain sabse bada mulk hai[13]. iski seemaaeain uttar-poorv mein Tunisia, poorv mein Libya, pashchim mein morakko, dakshin-pashchim mein pashchimi sahaara, maariteniya aur maali, dakshin-poorv mein naaijar aur uttar mein bhoo-madhya saagar se lagti hain. andaaje ke anusaar 2012 tak iski kul aabaadi 3.79 karod hai[14]. yeh afreeki sangh, arab sangathan, tel niryaati mulkon ka sangathan aur sanyukt raashtra ka sadasya aur arab maghareb sangh ka sansthaapik sadasya hai.

anukram

utpati

desh ka naam aljeeyars shahar se aaya hai. sabse adhik prachalit naam-utapatti shahar ka naam al-jajaayar (اaaلaaجaaزaaاaaئaaر, "dweep/taapoo") se jodti hai, jo is sahar ke puraane naam jajaayar bani majghaana (جaaزaaاaaئaaر بaaنaaي مaaزaaغaaنaaة, "majghaana kabeele ke taapoo") ka katare hua roop hai[15][16], jisko al-idareesi jaise madhya-kaali bhugol-shaastri ke istemaal karte the. kuchh or log iski utpatti "Ldzayer" se maanate hain jo is desh ka magharebi arabi aur barbar mein naam hai jo shaayad jireed raaj-kul ke raaja aur aljeeyars ke sansthaapak dhaan ibn-mand ke saath sambandhit hai.[17]

itihaas

poorv itihaas

puraane samay mein Algeria ko saltanat nomediya kaha jaata tha. uske log nomediyn kehte the. is saamraajya ke sambandh us samay ke praacheen yoonaan aur roman raashtron ke saath the. is kshetr upajaaoo kshetr ke roop mein jaana jaata tha aur yahaaain ke log gadh savaari visheshagya the. uttari Africa ke sthaaneeya log antat: barbar bane. 1000 mein kartaajana janajaatiyon tat ke saath samudaaya basaane shuroo kar diya. barbar janajaatiyon ne avsar paakar kartaajanon se aajaadi pa li aur barbar saamaraajya ki sthaapana hui. 200 mein is kshetr mein roman saamraajya ne kbja kar liya. lekin jab 476 i॰ mein pashchimi roman raajya ka patan hua to barbar fir se aajaad ho gaye. baad mein yahaaain vandaal janajaatiyon ne kbja kar liya jo bijaanteenon aagaman tak kaayam raha. bijaanteenon yahaaain 8 veen shataabdi tak maujood rahe to arab yahaaain kaabij ho gaye.

madhya yugeen

yeh bhi dekhiye

sandarbh

  1. "Constitution of Algeria, Art. 11" (Arabic mein). El-mouradia.dz. http://www.el-mouradia.dz/arabe/symbole/textes/constitution96.htm. abhigman tithi: 17 January 2013.
  2. "Constitution of Algeria; Art. 11". Apn-dz.org. 28 November 1996. http://www.apn-dz.org/apn/english/constitution96/titre_01.htm. abhigman tithi: 17 January 2013.
  3. http://www.algeria-un.org/audio/algeria.mp3
  4. "Constitution of Algeria; Art. 3". Apn-dz.org. 28 November 1996. http://www.apn-dz.org/apn/english/constitution96/titre_01.htm. abhigman tithi: 17 January 2013.
  5. a aa "Algeria". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6BNNjndve.
  6. L'Office National des Statistiques (ONS) (17 April 2013). "L'Algéarie comptait 37,9 millions d'habitants au 1er janvier 2013 (ONS)" (French mein). APS. http://www.aps.dz/L-Algerie-comptait-37-9-millions-d.html. abhigman tithi: 17 April 2013.
  7. "Population réasidente des méaanages ordinaires et collectifs (MOC) selon la wilaya de réasidence et le sexe et le taux d'accroissement annuel moyen (1998–2008)". Office National des Statistiques. http://www.ons.dz/IMG/pdf/pop1_national.pdf.
  8. a aa i E "Algeria". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=612&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=68&pr.y=8. abhigman tithi: 17 April 2013.
  9. Staff (undated). "Distribution of Family Income – Gini Index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. abhigman tithi: 1 September 2009.
  10. "Human Development Report 2011. Human Development Index Trends". United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2 November 2011.
  11. Geoghegan, Tom (7 September 2009). "Could the UK drive on the right?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8239048.stm. abhigman tithi: 14 January 2013.
  12. Radicati di Brozolo, Luca G. (1990). "Benemar v. Embassy of the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria". American Journal of International Law 84 (2): 573–577. doi:10.2307/2203476.
  13. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  14. Staff (undated). "Population et Déamographie [Population and Democraphics]" (French mein). Algerian Office of National Statistics. http://www.ons.dz/-Population-et-Demographie-.html. abhigman tithi: 15 September 2011.
  15. al-Idrisi, Muhammad (12th century). Nuzhat al-Mushtaq.
  16. Abderahman, Abderrahman (1377). History of Ibn Khaldun – Volume 6.
  17. Etymologie du toponyme "Aldjazair". Scribd.com. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.