3ji

antararaashtreeya mobile doorasanchaar- 2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) (IMT-2000), ko 3ji ya teesari peedhi ke roop mein behtar jaana jaata hai, ise antarraashtreeya doorasanchaar sangh (International Telecommunication Union) ke dvaara mobile doorasanchaar ke liye maanak varg ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai,[1] jismein GSM EDGE, UMTS aur CDMA2000, saath hi DECT aur WiMAX bhi shaamil hai. iski sevaaon mein mobile paryaavaran mein vyaapak kshetr wireless vois telephone, video calls aur wireless deta shaamil hain. 2G aur 2.5G sevaaon ki tulana mein, 3G uchch deta daron ke saath (HSPA+ ke saath daaunalink par 14.0 Mbit/s tak aur apalink par 5.8 Mbit/s tak) speech aur deta sevaaon ke svat: upayog mein madad karta hai. is prakaar, 3 G network ki madad se, network oparetar, upayogakarta ke liye, aadhunik spektral kushalata (improved spectral efficiency) ke maadhyam se adhik network kshamata praapt karke aadhunik sevaaon ki vyaapak range pesh kar paata hai. antarraashtreeya doorasanchaar sangh (International Telecommunication Union) (ITU) ne vikaas ko badhaava dene, baindavidth ko badhaane aur adhik vividh anuprayogon ko samarthan dene ke liye mobile teleefoni maanakon – IMT-2000 -ki teesari peedhi (3G) ko paribhaashit kiya. udaaharan ke liye, GSM (vartamaan mein sabse lokapriya selular phone maanak) na keval aavaaj (voice) ki delivery kar sakti hai, balki saath hi 14.4 kbps tak ki daaunalod ki daron ke saath sarkit-svich deta ki bhi delivery karti hai. lekin mobile malteemeediya anuprayogon ka samarthan karne ke liye, 3G ko adhik baindavidth par, behtar spektral kushalata se yukt packet-svich deta ki bhi delivery karni hoti thi.[sandigdh ]

anukram

avlokan

1999 mein, ITU ne IMT-2000 ke liye ITU-R M.1457 sifaarishon ke ek hisse ke roop mein, paanch radio intarafes ko manjoori di; WiMAX ko 2007 mein joda gaya.[2] aise vikaas ke maanak (evolutionary standards) hain, jo pehle se upasthit 2G network ke liye peechhe rahane vaale sangat vistaar hain aur saath hi kraantikaari maanak (revolutionary standards) hain jinhein sabhi nae network aur aavruti aavantan ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[3] UMTS varg mein baad ke samooh, jo IMT-2000 ke liye viksit kiye gaye maanakon se yukt hain, saath hi svatantr roop se viksit maanak DECT aur WiMAX, jinhein isliye shaamil kiya gaya kyonki ye IMT-2000 ki paribhaasha mein fit baithate the.

3G/IMT-2000 maanakon ka avlokan
[4]
ITU IMT-2000 saamaanya naam deta ki baindavidth poorv-4G dvaidh (duplex) channel vivran bhaugolik kshetr
TDMA ekal-kairiyr (IMT‑SC) EDGE (UWT-136) EDGE vikaas koi naheen FDD TDMA GSM/GPRS ke liye vikaasavaadi unnayan[nb 1] Japan aur dakshin Korea ke aalaava vishvyaapi
CDMA bahul-kairiyr (IMT‑MC) CDMA2000 EV-DO UMB [nb 2] CDMA cdmaOne (IS-95) ke liye vikaasavaadi unnayan America, Asia, kuchh anya
CDMA pratyaksh failaav (IMT‑DS) UMTS[nb 3] W‑CDMA[nb 4] HSPA LTE kraantikaari maanakon ka varg vishvavyaapi
CDMA TDD (IMT‑TC) TD‑CDMA TDD Europe
TD‑SCDMA[nb 5] cheen
FDMA/TDMA (IMT‑FT) DECT koi naheen FDMA TDMA kam range; kordales phone ke liye maanak Europe, sanyukt raajya amareeka
IP‑OFDMA colspan="2" WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) OFDMA baad ka sanskaran vishvyaapi

jahaan EDGE 3G maanak ka ek hissa hai, adhikaansh GSM/UMTS phone alag kriyaasheelata ke roop mein EDGE (“a2.75G”) aur MTS (“a3G”) network upalabdhata ko report karte hain.

itihaas

nokiya 6650 aur praarambhik UMTS haindaset

pehla poorv-vaanijyik 3G network, May 2001 mein Japan dvaara braanded FOMA mein NTT DoCoMo ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya, iska udaghaatan W-CDMA praudyogiki ki release par kiya gaya.[7] 3G ka pehla vaanijyik udaghaatan bhi Japan mein NTT DoCoMo ke dvaara hi 1 October 2001 ko kiya gaya, haalaanki shuruaat mein iska skop bahut seemit tha;[8][9] vishvasaneeyata par uthaaye gaye muddon ke kaaran iski vyaapak upalabdhata mein deri hui.[10] vaanijyik roop se chalne wala doosra network, dakshin Korea mein SK teleekom ke dvaara 1xEV-DO praudyogiki par January 2002 mein shuroo kiya gaya. May 2002 tak doosra dakshin Koreai 3G network KTF ke dvaara EV-DO par shuroo kiya gaya aur is prakaar se Koreai logon ne sabse pehle 3G oparetaron ke beech pratispardha mein bhaag liya. pehla Europeeya poorv vaanijyik network maanks telecom (Manx Telecom) ke dvaara aail of main par tha, iske baad oparetar ne british telecom par svaamitv kiya aur Europe mein vyaapaar ke liye pehla vaanijyik network December 2001 mein telinor (Telenor) ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya, jiske koi vaanijyik haindaset naheen the aur is praakaar se ise bhugataan karne vaale koi graahak naheen the. ye donon W-CDMA praudyogiki par the.

pehla vaanijyik ameriki 3G network monet mobile network (Monet Mobile Networks) ke dvaara, CDMA2000 1x EV-DO par tha, lekin is network pradaata ne baad mein operations ko band kar diya

sanyukt raajya America mein doosra 3G network tha, October 2003 mein varjn wireless (Verizon Wireless) jo CDMA2000 1x EV-DO par bhi tha. AT&T mobiliti bhi ek vaastavik 3G network tha, jisne HSUPA ke liye apne 3G unnayan ko poora kar liya hai.

dakshini golaarddh mein pehla vaanijyik pradarshan network Adelaide, dakshini Australia mein m.Net korporeshan ke dvaara February 2002 mein banaaya gaya, iske liye 2100 MHz par UMTS ka prayog kiya gaya. yeh 2002 IT world kongres ke liye ek pradarshan network tha. pehla vaanijyik network hachisn teleekamyunikeshan (Hutchison Telecommunications) ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya, ise March 2003 mein three (Three) ke roop mein braanded kiya gaya.

global mobile saplaayars association (Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA)) ke anusaar December 2007 mein, 190 3G network 40 deshon mein oparet kar rahe the aur 154 HSDPA network 71 deshon mein oparet kar rahe the. Asia, Europe, Canada aur America mein doorasanchaar companiyaan, 3G mobile network ko oparet karne ke liye lagbhag 100 terminal dijaainon ke samarthan ke saath W-CDMA praudyogiki ka upayog karti hain.

Europe mein, bade paimaane par baajaar vaanijyik 3G sevaaon ki shuruaat Britain aur Italy mein 3 (hachisn vhaamapoaa (Hutchison Whampoa) ka ek bhaag) ke dvaara March 2003 mein hui. Europeeya sangh parishad ne sujhaav diya ki 3G oparetaron ko 2005 ke ant tak Europeeya raashtreeya aabaadi ka 80% kavar karna chaahiye. 3G network ke rol-out mein, kuchh deshon mein atirikt spectrum laaseinsing shulk ki bhaari lagat ke kaaran deri hui.

(teleekom kresh (Telecoms crash) dekhein) kai deshon mein, 3G network 2G network ki tarah saamaan rediyon aavruti ka upayog naheen karte hain, isliye mobile oparetaron ko poori tarah se naya network banaana chaahiye aur poori tarah se nayi aavrutiyon ko license dena chaahiye; sanyukt raajya ek apavaad hai jahaan vaahak anya sevaaon ki tarah samaan aavrutiyon mein 3G seva ko oparet karte hain. kuchh Europeeya deshon mein license shulk vishesh roop se uchch tha, ise muharaband neelaami boli aur license ki ek seemit sankhya ki sarkaari neelaami se bal mila, iski shurooaati kshamata 3G ki kshamata se adhik thi.anya deriyon ka kaaran tha, nayi pranaaliyon ke liye upakaranon ke unnayan ke liye kiye jaane vaale vyaya. June 2007 tak 200 million tak 3G graahak jud chuke the.

poori duniya mein 3 billion mobile phone graahakon mein yeh keval 6.7% hai. jin deshon mein 3G pehle shuroo hua-Japan aur dakshin Korea-3G ki paith 70 pratishat se adhik hai.[11] Europe mein Italy agrani desh hai, jiske ek tihaai graahak 3G ki or rukh kar gaye. 3G ki or rukh karne vaale anya deshon mein shaamil hain Britain, ostriya, Australia aur Singapore jinka pravaas star 20 pratishat hai. ek bhraamak aankada CDMA 2000 1x RTT ke graahakon ki ganana bhi 3G graahakon ke roop mein karta hai. yadi is paribhaasha ka upayog kiya jaaye, to kul 3G graahak aadhaar June 2007 ko 475 million hoga aur poori duniya mein iske 15.8% graahak honge. telas (Telus) ne 2005 mein Canada mein 3G sevaaon ko pehle shuroo kiya.

rojars wireless (Rogers Wireless) ne poorvi Canada mein 2007 ke praarambh mein rojars vijn (Rogers Vision) ke roop mein 3G HSDPA sevaaon ko laagoo karna shuru kiya. fido saulyooshans (Fido Solutions) aur rojars wireless (Rogers Wireless) ab jyaadaatar shahari keindron mein 3G seva pradaan karte hain.

mobitel Iraq Iraq mein pehla mobile 3G oparetar hai. is vyavasaayik roop se February 2007 mein shuroo kiya gaya.

cheen ne May 2008 mein ghoshana ki ki teleekom sector ko punarsangathit kiya gaya aur teen 3G network aavantit kiye jaayeinge taaki sabse bada mobile oparetar, China mobile, apne GSM graahak aadhaar ko banaaye rakh sake. China yoonikom (China Unicom) apne GSM graahak aadhaar ko banaaye rakhega lekin apne CDMA2000 graahak aadhaar ko tyaag dega aur vishvastareeya WCDMA (UMTS) maanakon par 3G ki shuruaat karega. China yoonikom ke CDMA2000 graahak China teleekom par chale jaayeinge, jo iske baad CDMA 1x EV-DO maanak par 3G ki shuruaat karega. matlab yeh ki cheen sabhi teen mukhya selular praudyogiki ke vyaavasaayik upayog mein 3 ji maanakon hoga. ant mein January 2009 mein, cheen ke udyog aur soochana mantraalaya ko teenon maanakon ke license se sammaanit kiya gaya. ye maanak hain China mobile ke liye TD-SCDMA, China yoonikom ke liye WCDMA aur China teleekom ke liye CDMA2000.

November 2008 mein, Turkey ne 45, 40, 35 aur 25 MHz sheersh aavrutiyon se yukt chaar IMT 2000/UMTS maanak 3G license ko neelaam kiya. vodaafon aur eviya ki kramash: 40 aur 35 MHz ki aavrutiyon ki 20 saal ki leej ke baad turkasel ne €a358 million se yukt 45 MHz band ki peshakash ko jeet liya hai. 25 MHz ki sheersh aavruti ke license ki neelaami abhi baaki hai.

fir bhi kai vikaasasheel deshon ko 3G license naheen diya gaya hai aur graahak 3G sevaaon ka intajaar kar rahein hain. cheen ne 3G par faisala lene mein kai varsh ki deri ki, iska mukhya kaaran yeh raha ki unki sarkaar ne achhi tarah se paribhaashit maanakon ki sthaapana mein deri ki.[12] 3G takaneek ka pehla afreeki upayog tha, November 2004 mein vodaakom network par johaansabarg mein nirmit ek 3G vidiosel. Africa mein 3G ki pehli vaanijyik shuruaat EMTEL ke dvaara maureeshas mein W-CDMA maanak par ki gayi. March 2006 ke ant mein uttari afreeki morakko mein, ek nai company vaana (Wana) ke dvaara ek 3G seva upalabdh karaayi gayi.

ek pramukh doorasanchaar seva pradaata T-mobile ne haal hi mein 120 se adhik ameriki shaharon ki soochi ko baahar kar diya hai, jinhein varsh 2009 mein 3G network coverage upalabdh karaaya jaaega.[13] 2008 mein, Bhaarat mahanagar telephone nigam limited (MTNL) ke dvaara 3G yukt mobile seva ke udaghaatan ke saath 3G mobile arena mein pravesh kar gaya hai. Bhaarat mein MTNL 3G sevaaen shuroo karne wala pehla mobile oparetar hai.

visheshataaen

deta dar

ITU ne un deta daron ki spasht paribhaasha upalabdh naheen karaayi hai, jiski apeksha 3G upakaran ya pradaata se ki jaati hai. is prakaar se upayogakartaaon ko becheen jaa4tertebb4454tne waali 3G seva ek maanak ko nirdisht karne mein saksham naheen hoti hai aur kaha ja sakta hai ki iske dvaara nirdisht darein upayakt naheen hain. ek tippani mein kaha gaya ki "yeh apeksha ki jaati hai ki IMT-2000 uchch sancharan darein pradaan karega: sthir ya chalte hue upayogakartaaon ke liye nyoonatam 2 Mbit/s ki deta dar aur ek chalte hue vaahan mein 348 kbit/s ki deta dar,"[14] ITU vaastav mein spasht roop se nyoonatam ya ausat daron ko nirdisht naheen karta hai ya yeh naheen bataata hai ki intarafes ka kaun sa roop 3G ke liye yogya hai, isliye bhinn daron ko 3G ke roop mein becha jaata hai taaki graahak ki braudabaind deta ki ummeedon ko poora kiya ja sake.

suraksha

3G network 2G poorvavartiyon ki tulana mein adhik suraksha pesh karte hain. UE (upayokta upakaran) ko network se judne ki anumati dekar, upayogakarta yeh sunishchit kar sakta hai ki network iraadatan praapt hua hai sirf abhinay maatr naheen hai. 3G network, puraane A5/1 streem sifr ke bajaay, KASUMI block kripto ka upayog karte hain. haalaanki, KASUMI sifr mein kai gambhir kamjoriyaan paayi gayi hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 3G network adhosaranchana suraksha ke alaava, ant se ant tak suraksha pesh ki jaati hai jab anuprayog fremavark jaise IMS upalabdh hon, haalaanki yeh kathor roop se 3G ki sampatti naheen hai. ==2G se vikaas == 2G network ko mukhya roop se dhvani sevaaon aur dheeme deta sancharan ke liye banaaya gaya tha.

2G se 2.5G

3G ke vikaas ke liye pehla mukhya kadam hai general packet radio service (GPRS) ki shuruaat. isliye GPRS se yukt selyoolar sevaaen '2.5G' ban gayeen. GPRS 56 kbit/s se 114 kbit/s tak ki deta darein upalabdh kara sakta hai. iska upayog sevaaon jaise wireless anuprayog protokol (Wireless Application Protocol) (WAP) ekses, malteemidiya mesejing service (Multimedia Messaging Service) (MMS) ke liye aur Internet sanchaar sevaaen jaise imel aur varldavaaid web ekses (World Wide Web access) ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. GPRS deta sthaanaantaran ko aamtaur par staanaantrit trefik ke prati megaabaait ke anusaar chaarj (bhugataan) kiya jaata hai, jabki paaramparik sarkit sviching ke maadhyam se deta sanchaar ka bill sanyojan samay ke prati minute ke hisaab se aata hai, yeh is baat se svatantr hota hai ki upayogakarta vaastav mein kshamata ka upayog kar raha hai ya aadarsh avastha mein hai. === 2.5G se 2.75G (EDGE) === GPRS network 8PSK enkoding ki shuruaat ke saath EDGE network mein viksit hue. GSM ke vikaas ke liye badhi hui deta darein (EDGE), badha hua GPRS (EGPRS), ya IMT ekal kairiyr (IMT-SC) ek backward sangat digital mobile phone takaneek hai jo maanak GSM ke sheersh par ek vistaar ke roop mein deta sancharan ki dar mein sudhaar karti hai. EDGE ko ek 3G radio takaneek maana ja sakta hai aur yeh ITU ki 3G paribhaasha ka ek hissa hai, lekin ise adhiktar 2.75G ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. EDGE ko 2003 ki shuruaat mein GSM network par tainaat kiya gaya-praarambh mein ise America mein singular (Cingular) (ab AT&T) ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya tha. EDGE GSM varg ke bhaag ke roop mein 3GPP ke dvaara maanakeekrut hai aur yeh ek unnayan hai jo GSM/GPRS network ki kshamata mein sambhaavit trivlani vruddhi upalabdh karaata hai. vinirdeshan maujooda GSM taaimaslots ke bheetar, kodan (8PSK) ki adhik parishkrut vidhiyon ke liye uchch deta darein praapt karta hai.

4G ki or vikaas

3GPP or 3GPP2 vartamaan mein 3G maanakon ke liye vistaar par kaarya kar rahein hain, inke naam hain kramash: laung tarm evolyooshan (Long Term Evolution) aur ultra mobile brodbaind (Ultra Mobile Broadband). ek poorn-IP network adhosaranchana par aadhaarit hote hue aur unnat wireless takaneekon jaise MIMO ka upayog karte hue, ye vinirdeshan pehle se hi 3G ke agragaami, IMT-edavaansd (4G) ke liye laakshanik visheshataaon ko pradarshit karte hain. haalaanki, 4G ke liye baindavidth aavashyakataaon ki kami ke kaaran (jo sthir ke liye 1 Gbit/s aur mobile opareshan ke liye 100 Gbit/s hai), ye maanak 3.9G ya poorv-4G ke roop mein vargeekrut kiye jaate hain. 3GPP yojanaayein LTE unnat ke saath 4G ke lakshyon ko poora karti hain, jabki kvaalakom (Qualcomm) ne LTE varg ke paksh mein UMB ke vikaas ko rok diya hai.[5]

 == pareshaaniyaan==

haalaanki 3G poori duniya mein upayogakartaaon ke liye safalataapoorvak shuroo hua, fir bhi kuchh muddon par pradaaton aur upayogakartaaon ke beech vivaad hai.

* kuchh nyaayaalayon mein 3G seva license ke liye mahanga input shulk. 
  • raajyon ke beech license ki sharton mein antar
  • kuchh doorasanchaar companiyon ke dvaara diye jaane vaale rin ka star, jo 3G mein nivesh ko mushkil banaata hai.
  • aarthik roop se pareshaan oparetaron ke liye raajya ki sahaayata ka abhaav
  • 3G phone ki laagat
  • kuchh kshetron mein coverage ki kami.
  • haath mein pakade jaane vaale upakaran mein brodbaind sevaaon ke liye maang.
  • 3G phone ki baitari ka jeevan.

yeh bhi dekhein.

  • 3GP
  • 4G
  • DigRF V3
  • IP malteemeediya sabasistam
  • spektral kushalata
  • WiBro
  • wireless maudam
  • WiMAX

sandarbh

  1. klint smith, Daniel kollins. "3G wireless network", prushth 136. 2000.
  2. ITU. "ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards". press release. http://www.itu.int/newsroom/press_releases/2007/30.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-01.
  3. ITU. "What really is a Third Generation (3G) Mobile Technology" (PDF). Archived on 2008-09-08. Error: If you specify |archivedate=, you must also specify |archiveurl=. http://web.archive.org/20080908081922/www.itu.int/ITU-D/imt-2000/DocumentsIMT2000/What_really_3G.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-01.
  4. ITU-D Study Group 2. "Guidelines on the smooth transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for developing countries (GST); Report on Question 18/2". http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/stg/D-STG-SG02.18-1-2006-PDF-E.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-01.
  5. a aa Qualcomm halts UMB project rayutars, 13 November 2008.
  6. a aa 3GPP notes that “athere currently existed many different names for the same system (eg FOMA, W-CDMA, UMTS, etc)”; "Draft summary minutes, decisions and actions from 3GPP Organizational Partners Meeting#6, Tokyo, 9 October 2001" (PDF). pp. 7. http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/op/OP_07/DOCS/pdf/OP6_13r1.pdf.
  7. "The history of UMTS and 3G development". http://www.umtsworld.com/umts/history.htm.
  8. "World's first 3G launch on 1st October severely restricted (hktdc.com)". http://info.hktdc.com/imn/01100401/info14.htm.
  9. "broadbandmag.co.uk/3G grinds to a start". http://www.broadbandmag.co.uk/analysis/3G/3G.html.
  10. "DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch". Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. https://archive.is/1GKi.
  11. http://www.plus8star.com/?p=123 Plus 8 Star presentation, "Is 3G a Dog or a Demon - Hints from 7 years of 3G Hype in Asia"
  12. "China's 3G delay hurting investment". http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/communications/0,39044192,62032320,00.htm.
  13. "T-Mobile 3G Network Expansion: List of U.S. Cities Going 3G in 2008". http://www.intomobile.com/2009/05/20/t-mobile-3g-network-expansion-list-of-us-cities-going-3g-in-2009.html.
  14. "Cellular Standards for the Third Generation". ITU. 2005-12-01. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/imt-2000/technology.html#Cellular%20Standards%20for%20the%20Third%20Generation.

vyaakhyaatmak nots

  1. PDC aur / ya D-AMPS ke unnayan ke roop mein bhi prayukt kiya ja sakta hai.
  2. development halted in favour of LTE.[5]
  3. also known as FOMA[6]; UMTS is the common name for a standard that encompasses multiple air interfaces.
  4. also known as UTRA-FDD; W-CDMA is sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS, ignoring the other air interface options.[6]
  5. ise UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps low chip rate (LCR) ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai.

prashansa patra

agrim pathan

  • ahonen, M-profits meking maani vith 3G (vile,2002), 3G ke baare mein pehli vyaapar pustak, I S bi N 978-0470847756
  • ahonen, kaaspar aur melkko, 3G maarketing (vile, 2004), 3G ke liye pehli vipnan pustak, I S bi N 978-0470851005

baahari link

saaaincha:Mobile telecommunications standards saaaincha:Wireless systems