2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic

XXX olampiyaad khel
London Olympics 2012 logo.png
mejbaan nagar London, United kingadam
dhyeya Inspire a Generation
(ek peedhi ko prerit karo)
pratibhaagi desh 204+1[1]
pratibhaagi khilaadi 10,500 (anumaanit)
pratiyogitaaeain 26 kreedaaon mein 302
udghaatan samaaroh 27 July
samaapan samaaroh 12 August
stadium olympic stadium

2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic (aadhikaarik taur par XXX olampiyaad ke khel) United kingadam ke landan mahanagar mein 27 July se 12 August 2012 ke beech aayojit hone hain.[2] landan aadhikaarik taur par teen aadhunik olympic khelon ka aayojan karne wala pehla shahar banega.[3] isse pehle landan ne 1908 aur 1948 mein olympic khelon ki mejbaani ki thi.[4][5]

khelon ki taiyaari ke liye yathesht punarvikaas kiya gaya tatha is poore prayojan mein sandhaaraneeyata ko vishesh mahatvata di gayi.[6] iska mukhya kendra-bindu aur aakarshan 200 haikteyar mein faila hua olympic park hai, jiska nirmaan straitaford mein ek poorv audyogik sthal ke oopar kiya gaya hai.[7] khelon mein pehle se hi upasthit kai sthalon ka upayog bhi kiya gaya hai.

anukram

mejbaan nagar ka chayan

2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic ke liye boli prastut karne ki samay seema 15 July 2003 tak nau shaharon ne mejbaani ke liye apni boli prastut ki thi. yeh nagar the: havaana, istaanbul, lipjig, landan, Madrid, Moscow, New York, peris aur Rio di jenero.[8]

18 May 2004 ko antarraashtreeya olympic samiti (aaiosi) ne takaneeki moolyaankan ke parinaamon ke pashchaat shaharon ki sankhya paaainch tak kar di: landan, Madrid, Moscow, New York nagar aur peris.[9]

2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic ki boli prakriya ke parinaam
nagar enaosi 1 daur 2 daur 3 daur 4 daur
landan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg sanyukt raajashaahi 22 27 39 54
peris Flag of France.svg fraans 21 25 33 50
Madrid Flag of Spain.svg Spain 20 32 31
New York nagar Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America 19 16
Moscow Flag of Russia.svg roos 15

logo aur graafik

landan olympic le liye do logo taiyaar kiye gaye the: ek jo boli prakriya ke liye prayukt hua tha aur kino dijaain dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya tha aur doosra jo in khalon ke liye braand ke roop mein taiyaar kiya gaya tha. pehla wala logo neeli, peeli, kaali, hari aur laal pattiyon se vakrit ribn tha jispar "LONDON 2012" likha hua tha aur ribn ki dhaariyaaain landan ki taimj nadi si prateet ho rahi thi. doosra wala logo volf olins dvaara nirmit tha aur 4 June 2012 ko anaavrut kiya gaya tha aur jiska moolya chaar lakh paaund tha[10]. naya logo 2012 ki sankhya ka pratinidhitv karta hai aur olympic chhalle shoonya ke bheetar samaahit hain[11].

pairaalampik logo (sabse baaeain) aur bhinn rango ke sanyojan vaale aadhikaarik volf olins dvaara nirmit logo.

yeh pehla olympic hai jismein ek hi moolabhoot logo olympic aur pairaalampik donon ke liye prayukt hua hai[12].

khel padak

olympic aur pairaalampik khelon ke liye kul lagbhag 4,700 padak royal mint dvaara nirmit kiye gaye hain. inhein David vautkins (olympic ke liye) aur lin chiyung (pairaalampik ke liye) dvaara dijaain kiya gaya hai. pratyek padak 375-400 gram tak bhaari hai, inka vyaas 85 mimi hai aur motaai 7 mimi hai aur sambandhit khel rim par utkeern hai.

khel samaaroh

udghaatan samaaroh

in khelon ka udghaatan samaaroh sthaaneeya samayaanusaar raatri nau baje aarambh hua tha (Bhaarat mein 28 July 2012 ko raat 1:30 baje)[13] aur in khelon ko "the aayals of vandar" kaha gaya. oscar-vijeta nirdeshak daini boyal udghaatan samaaroh ke kalaatmak nirdeshak aur sangeet nirdeshak ilaiktraunik myoojik duo andaaravarld ke rik smith aur kaarl haaid the.

in khelon ka shubhaarambh mahaaraani elijaabeth dviteeya aur edinbarg ke Duke prins filip dvaara kiya gaya.

seekrait ejant James baund ke roop mein dainiyl kraig aur mahaaraani elijaabeth dviteeya dvaara abhineet ek laghu chalachitr ko samaaroh ki tailivijn coverage ke dauraan dikhaaya kiya gaya tha. sar paul maikkaartni ne samaaroh ke ant mein "he jood (Hey Jude)" naamak gaana pradarshit kiya.

samaapan samaaroh

in khelon ka samaapan samaaroh 12 August 2012 ko kiya jaaega jismein landan ke mahaapaur boris jaunsan, varsh 2016 ke olympic khelon ke mejbaan Rio di jenero ke mahaapaur ko olympic dhvaj ka hastaantaran kareinge.

pratibhaagi raashtra

team sankhya
█a█ 300+ █a█ 100+ █a█ 30+ █a█ 10+ █a█ 4+ █a█ 1+

in khelon mein 204 raashtreeya olympic samitiyon dvaara bhaag liye jaane ki sambhaavana hai. iske atirik needaralaans aantilaan olympic samiti ke khilaadi vaiyaktik roop se olympic dhvaj tale in khelon mein bhaag leinge. ye samitiyaaain nimnalikhit hain (koshtak mein us desh se bhaag lene vaale khilaadiyon ki sankhya):

mejbaan desh

Flag of Angola.svg angola (ANG, 34) Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg gini-bisaaoo (GBS, 4) Flag of Peru.svg peroo (PER, 16) Flag of Uganda.svg yugaanda (UGA, 16)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg ajrabaijaan (AZE, 53) Flag of Guam.svg guaam (GUM, 8) Flag of Poland.svg polaind (POL, 217) Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine (UKR, 238)
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg anteeguaa aur baarabooda (ANT, 5) Flag of Guyana.svg guyaana (GUY, 6) Flag of Puerto Rico.svg pyurto riko (PUR, 24) Flag of Greece.svg yoonaan (GRE, 105)
Flag of Andorra.svg andora (AND, 6) Flag of Gabon.svg gaibaun (GAB, 24) Flag of Fiji.svg fiji (FIJ, 9) Flag of Rwanda.svg ravaanda (RWA, 7)
Flag of Afghanistan.svg afgaanistaan (AFG, 6) Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada (GRN, 10) Flag of Finland.svg finlaind (FIN, 56) Flag of Russia.svg roos (RUS, 436)
Flag of American Samoa.svg ameriki samoaa (ASA, 5) Flag of Guatemala.svg gvaatemaala (GUA, 19) Flag of the Philippines.svg fileepeens (PHI, 11) Flag of Romania.svg romaaniya (ROU, 103)
Flag of Aruba.svg arooba (ARU, 4) Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana (GHA, 9) Flag of Palestine.svg filisteen (PLE, 5) Flag of Luxembourg.svg lagjmbarg (LUX, 10)
Flag of Argentina.svg arjenteena (ARG, 137) Flag of Chad.svg chaad (CHA, 3) Flag of France.svg fraans (FRA, 333) Flag of Liberia.svg laaiberiya (LBR, 4)
Flag of El Salvador.svg al saalvaador (ESA, 10) Flag of Chile.svg chili (CHI, 35) Flag of Bermuda.svg baramooda (BER, 8) Flag of Laos.svg laaos (LAO, 3)
Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria (ALG, 39) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg cheen (CHN, 380) Flag of Bahrain.svg bahareen (BRN, 14) Flag of Latvia.svg laataviya (LAT, 46)
Flag of Albania.svg albaaniya (ALB, 11) Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg cheeni Taipei (TPE, 44) Flag of the Bahamas.svg bahaamaas (BAH, 23) Flag of Liechtenstein.svg liktenstaain (LIE, 3)
Flag of Iceland.svg aaisalaind (ISL, 27) Flag of the Czech Republic.svg chaik ganaraajya (CZE, 133) Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg british varjin dveepasamooh (IVB, 2) Flag of Lithuania.svg lithuaaniya (LTU, 62)
Flag of Ireland.svg aayaralaind (IRL, 65) Flag of Jamaica.svg jamaika (JAM, 50) Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh (BAN, 5) Flag of Libya.svg Libya (LBA, 5)
Flag of Armenia.svg aarmeeniya (ARM, 25) Flag of Germany.svg Germany (GER, 392) Flag of Barbados.svg baarabaados (BAR, 6) Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon (LIB, 10)
Flag of Israel.svg ijraail (ISR, 37) Flag of Zambia.svg jaambiya (ZAM, 8) Flag of Burundi.svg burundi (BDI, 6) Flag of Lesotho.svg lesotho (LES, 4)
Flag of Italy.svg Italy (ITA, 284) Flag of Zimbabwe.svg jimbaabve (ZIM, 7) Flag of Burkina Faso.svg burkina faaso (BUR, 5) Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg varjin dveepasamooh (ISV, 7)
Flag of Indonesia.svg indoneshiya (INA, 21) Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JPN, 293) Flag of Bulgaria.svg bulgaariya (BUL, 63) Flag of Vanuatu.svg vaanooaatoo (VAN, 5)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg ithiyopiya (ETH, 35) Flag of Djibouti.svg jibooti (DJI, 6) Flag of Benin.svg benin (BEN, 5) Flag of Vietnam.svg viytanaam (VIE, 18)
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq (IRQ, 8) Flag of Georgia.svg jaurjiya (GEO, 35) Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus (BLR, 166) Flag of Venezuela.svg venejuela (VEN, 70)
Flag of Eritrea.svg ireetriya (ERI, 12) Flag of Jordan.svg jaurdan (JOR, 9) Flag of Belize.svg beleej (BIZ, 3) Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka (SRI, 7)
Flag of Ecuador.svg ikvaador (ECU, 36) Flag of Tonga.svg tonga (TGA, 3) Flag of Belgium.svg Belgium (BEL, 115) Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg sanyukt arab ameeraat (UAE, 26)
Flag of Iran.svg Iran (IRI, 54) Flag of Togo.svg togo (TOG, 6) Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg bausniya aur harjegovina (BIH, 6) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg sanyukt raajashaahi (GBR, 542)
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg ujbekistaan (UZB, 54) Flag of Tunisia.svg tyoonishiya (TUN, 83) Flag of Botswana.svg botsavaana (BOT, 4) Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America (USA, 530)
Flag of North Korea.svg uttar Korea (PRK, 51) Flag of Denmark.svg dainamaark (DEN, 113) Flag of Bolivia.svg boliviya (BOL, 5) Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg saudi arab (KSA, 19)
Flag of Uruguay.svg urugve (URU, 29) Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg dominikn ganaraajya (DOM, 35) Flag of Brazil.svg braajeel (BRA, 259) Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg sant kits aur nevis (SKN, 7)
Flag of Estonia.svg estoniya (EST, 33) Flag of Dominica.svg dominika (DMA, 2) Flag of Brunei.svg brunei (BRU, 3) Flag of Saint Lucia.svg sant loosiya (LCA, 4)
Flag of Austria.svg ostriya (AUT, 70) Flag of Tanzania.svg tanjaaniya (TAN, 7) Flag of भारत Bhaarat (IND, 81) Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg sant vinsent aur grenaadaains (VIN, 3)
Flag of Australia.svg Australia (AUS, 410) Flag of Tajikistan.svg taajikistaan (TJK, 16) Flag of Bhutan.svg bhootaan (BHU, 2) Flag of Samoa.svg samoaa (SAM, 8)
Flag of Oman.svg omaan (OMA, 4) Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan (TKM, 10) Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg bhoomadhyarekheeya gini (GEQ, 2) Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia (SRB, 115)
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg kajaakhistaan (KAZ, 114) Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey (TUR, 114) Flag of Mongolia.svg mangoliya (MGL, 29) Flag of Cyprus.svg saaipras (CYP, 13)
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar (QAT, 12) Flag of Tuvalu.svg tuvaaloo (TUV, 3) Flag of the Central African Republic.svg madhya afreeki ganaraajya (CAF, 6) Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg saao tome aur prinsipi (STP, 2)
Flag of Canada.svg Canada (CAN, 277) Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad aur Tobago (TRI, 31) Flag of Malawi.svg malaavi (MAW, 3) Flag of San Marino.svg saan maarino (SMR, 4)
Flag of Cambodia.svg kambodiya (CAM, 6) Flag of Thailand.svg thaailaind (THA, 37) Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia (MAS, 30) Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore (SIN, 23)
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg cook dveepasamooh (COK, 8) Flag of South Africa.svg dakshin afreeka (RSA, 125) Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg maaikroneshiya (FSM, 6) Flag of Sierra Leone.svg siyera Leon (SLE, 2)
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg kaango (CGO, 7) Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg dakshin Korea (KOR, 245) Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg maarshal dveepasamooh (MHL, 4) Flag of Syria.svg Syria (SYR, 10)
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg kaango lokataantrik ganaraajya (COD, 4) Flag of Niger.svg naaijar (NIG, 6) Flag of Maldives.svg maaladeev (MDV, 5) Flag of Sudan.svg soodaan (SUD, 6)
Flag of Kiribati.svg kiribaati (KIR, 3) Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria (NGR, 55) Flag of Mali.svg maali (MLI, 6) Flag of Suriname.svg sooreenaam (SUR, 5)
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg kirgijstaan (KGZ, 14) Flag of Nauru.svg naauru (NRU, 2) Flag of Malta.svg maalta (MLT, 5) Flag of Senegal.svg senegal (SEN, 31)
Flag of Kenya.svg keeniya (KEN, 47) Flag of Namibia.svg naameebiya (NAM, 9) Flag of Egypt.svg misr (EGY, 113) Flag of Seychelles.svg seshals (SEY, 6)
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait (KUW, 11) Flag of Nicaragua.svg nikaaraaguaa (NCA, 6) Flag of Mexico.svg maiksiko (MEX, 102) Flag of Somalia.svg somaaliya (SOM, 2)
Flag of Cape Verde.svg kep varde (CPV, 3) Flag of the Netherlands.svg needaralaind (NED, 178) Flag of Madagascar.svg maidaagaaskar (MAD, 7) Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg soloman dveepasamooh (SOL, 4)
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg keman dveepasamooh (CAY, 5) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal (NEP, 5) Flag of Macedonia.svg maisedoniya (MKD, 4) Flag of Spain.svg Spain (ESP, 283)
Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon (CMR, 33) Flag of Norway.svg Norway (NOR, 64) Flag of Mauritania.svg mauritaaniya (MTN, 2) Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia (SVK, 46)
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg kot the' aaivor (CIV, 10) Flag of New Zealand.svg nyoojeelaind (NZL, 184) Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius (MRI, 11) Flag of Slovenia.svg sloveniya (SLO, 65)
Flag of the Comoros.svg komoros (COM, 3) Flag of Panama.svg panaama (PAN, 7) Flag of Moldova.svg mauldova (MDA, 22) Flag of Swaziland.svg svaajeelaind (SWZ, 3)
Flag of Colombia.svg kolambiya (COL, 104) Flag of Paraguay.svg paraagve (PAR, 8) Flag of Mozambique.svg mojaambeek (MOZ, 6) Flag of Switzerland.svg svitjralaind (SUI, 102)
Flag of Costa Rica.svg kosta rika (CRC, 11) Flag of Palau.svg palaau (PLW, 5) Flag of Montenegro.svg montenegro (MNE, 33) Flag of Sweden.svg sveedan (SWE, 135)
Flag of Cuba.svg kyooba (CUB, 110) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan (PAK, 21) Flag of Monaco.svg monaako (MON, 6) Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary (HUN, 158)
Flag of Croatia.svg kroeshiya (CRO, 108) Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg paapuaa new gini (PNG, 8) Flag of Morocco.svg morakko (MAR, 67) Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hongkong (HKG, 42)
Flag of The Gambia.svg gaambiya (GAM, 2) Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (POR, 75) Flag of Myanmar.svg myaanmaar (MYA, 6) Flag of Haiti.svg haiti (HAI, 5)
Flag of Guinea.svg gini (GUI, 4) Flag of East Timor.svg poorvi timor (TLS, 2) Flag of Yemen.svg yaman (YEM, 4) Flag of Honduras.svg haunduras (HON, 27)
  • needaralaans aantilaan olympic samiti ke khilaadi olympic dhvaj tale vaiyaktik roop se bhaag leinge. ise milaakar kul pratibhaagi samitiyon ki sankhya 205 hai.

khel-saarini

u.s. udghaatan samaaroh pratispardhaae 1 final s.s. samaapan samaaroh
July/ August 25
budh
26
bruhaspat
27
shukr
28
shani
29
ravi
30
som
31
mangal
1
budh
2
bruhaspat
3
shukr
4
shani
5
ravi
6
som
7
mangal
8
budh
9
bruhaspat
10
shukr
11
shani
12
ravi
pratispardhaae
samaaroh u.s. s.s.
teerandaaji 1 1 1 1 4
ethaletiks 2 5 7 5 4 4 5 6 8 1 47
badminton 1 2 2 5
baasketabaul 1 1 2
mukkebaaji 3 5 5 13
kainoing 1 1 2 4 4 4 16
saayakling 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 18
gotaakhori 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
ghudsavaari 2 1 1 2 6
talavaarabaaji 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
hockey 1 1 2
football 1 1 2
jimnaastiks 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 1 1 18
haindabaal 1 1 2
judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
aadhunik pentaathalan 1 1 2
roing 3 3 4 4 14
naukaayan 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 10
nishaanebaaji 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 15
tairaaki 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
layabaddh tairaaki 1 1 2
table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
taayakvondo 2 2 2 2 8
tennis 2 3 5
traaithalan 1 1 2
vauleebaul 1 1 1 1 4
vautar polo 1 1 2
bhaarottolan 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
kushti 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 18
kul pratispardhaae 12 14 12 15 20 18 22 25 23 18 21 17 22 16 32 15 302
kul sanchayi 12 26 38 53 73 91 113 138 161 179 200 217 239 255 287 302
July/ August 25
budh
26
bruhaspat
27
shukr
28
shani
29
ravi
30
som
31
mangal
1
budh
2
bruhaspat
3
shukr
4
shani
5
ravi
6
som
7
mangal
8
budh
9
bruhaspat
10
shukr
11
shani
12
ravi
pratispardhaae

padak taalika

is padak taalika mein sheersh das deshon ko rakha gaya hai aur koshtak mein aaiosi code diya gaya hai. poori soochi dekhne ke liye 2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic padak taalika dekhein. krupaya dhyaan dein ki kramaank aur sthaan mein antar hai. kramaank keval ek sankhya hai jo kramik roop se aarambh hokar ant tak ek-ek kar badh rahi hai jabki sthaan is taalika mein vibhinn deshon ko padak sankhya ke aadhaar par diya gaya hai. ek se adhik desh teenon prakaar ke padakon ka ek sa melajol praapt kar sakte hain isliye aise deshon ko ek hi sthaan diya jaaega aur yeh aaiosi code ke anusaar kramit kiye gaye hain.

mejbaan desh

kramaank sthaan aaiosi code raashtra svarn rajat kaansya kul
1 1 USA Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America 46 29 29 104
2 2 CHN Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg cheeni janavaadi ganaraajya 38 27 23 88
3 3 GBR Flag of the United Kingdom.svg sanyukt raajashaahi 29 17 19 65
4 4 RUS Flag of Russia.svg roos 24 26 32 82
5 5 KOR Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg dakshin Korea 13 8 7 28
6 6 GER Flag of Germany.svg Germany 11 19 14 44
7 7 FRA Flag of France.svg fraans 11 11 12 34
8 8 ITA Flag of Italy.svg Italy 8 9 11 28
9 9 HUN Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary 8 4 5 17
10 10 AUS Flag of Australia.svg Australia 7 16 12 35
kul 302 304 356 962

sandarbh

  1. needaralaans aantiln olympic samiti, jiski yojana needaralaans aantiln ke vilyan ke baad bhi prakraaryaatmak rahane ki thi, ki sadasyata June 2011 ki aaiosi baithak mein aaiosi kaaryakaari samiti dvaara samaapt kar di gayi. lekin needaralaans aantiln ke khilaadi jinhonne 2012 olympic ke liye kvaalifaai kiya hai ko olympic samiti dvaara olympic dhvaj ke tale in khelon mein bhaag lene ki anumati de di hai.
  2. "International Olympic Committee – London 2012" (angreji mein). aaiosi. http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/london/index_uk.asp. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2011.
  3. "Coe promises Olympics to remember" (angreji mein). BBC sport. 6 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/olympics_2012/4654821.stm. abhigman tithi: 23 July 2011.
  4. baaraden, mark (26 April 2008). "London's first Olympics" (angreji mein). BBC sport. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/7361921.stm. abhigman tithi: 23 July 2011.
  5. "The 1948 London Olympics Gallery" (angreji mein). BBC history. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/olympics_1948_gallery.shtml. abhigman tithi: 23 July 2011.
  6. "Building a sustainable Games". london2012.com. landan organaaijing committee of the olympic gems end pairaalampik gems. Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091018073244/http://www.london2012.com/plans/sustainability/getting-ready/index.php. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2012.
  7. "Newham London: The Olympic Park". newham.gov.uk. London baro of nyoohaim. http://www.newham.gov.uk/2012Games/AboutThe2012Games/TheOlympicPark.htm. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2012.
  8. "Olympic bids: The rivals". BBC sport. 15 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/3068323.stm. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2011.
  9. "Day One Of Paris 2012 Inspection By IOC" (angreji mein). gemsabids. http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1110389129. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2011.
  10. "London unveils logo of 2012 Games". BBC Sport. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/olympics_2012/6718243.stm. abhigman tithi: 5 July 2007. (angreji)
  11. "The new London 2012 brand". London 2012. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 6 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070606204757/http://www.london2012.com/about-newlook-video.html. abhigman tithi: 4 June 2007. (angreji)
  12. "London 2012 logo to be unveiled". BBC Sport. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/olympics_2012/6718243.stm. abhigman tithi: 4 June 2007. (angreji)
  13. Opening Ceremony (angreji)

baahari kadiyaaain