1725 tak cricket ka itihaas

cricket ke gyaat mool se lekar England ka pramukh khel ban jaane aur anya deshon mein iski shuruaat kiye jaane tak is khel ke vikaas ke padachihn 1725 tak cricket ka itihaas mein darj hain.

cricket par puraana nishchit sandarbh 1598 mein milta hai aur isse saaf ho jaata hai ki cricket 1550 ki sadi mein khela jaata tha, lekin iski asli utpatti ek rahasya hi hai. ek nishchit had tak itna kaha ja sakta hai ki iski shurooaat 1550 se pehle hui thi, dakshin-poorv England ke keint, saseks, sare mein se kaheen se hui, jyaada sambhaavana us kshetr se jo veld ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. doosare khelon jaise ki stoolabaul aur raaundars ki tarah, ballebaaj, geindabaaj aur kshetrarakshakon ke saath cricket apekshaakrut chhote ghaas par khela ja sakta hai, vishesh roop se 1760 ke dashak tak geind maidaan mein diya jaata tha. isliye jangalon ki safaai aur jahaan bhed charate hain, khel ke liye upayukt jagah ho sakti hai.

cricket ke baare mein chhitput upalabdh jaankaari se pata chalta hai ki mool roop se yeh bachchon ka khel tha. iske baad 17veen shataabdi mein ise karmachaariyon dvaara apna liya gaya. Charles pratham ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan iske sanrakshak aur kabhi-kabhi khilaadi ke roop mein kuleen varg ki dilchaspi ismein badhne lagi. unke liye ismein sabse bada aakarshan yeh tha ki is khel mein juaa khelne ki gunjaaish thi aur isi kaaran pratyaavartan ke baad ke varshon mein yeh failata gaya. hanoveriyn shaasan ke samay se, cricket mein nivesh ne peshevar khilaadi aur pehla pramukh club taiyaar kiya, is tarah London aur dakshin England mein yeh khel lokapriya saamaajik gatividhi ke roop mein sthaapit hua. is beech angrej upaniveshavaadiyon ne uttar America aur vest Indies mein cricket ki shuruaat ki; aur East India company ke naavik aur vyaapaari ise bhaarateeya upamahaadveep le gaye.

anukram

bachchon ke ek khel ke roop mein cricket ka janm

utpatti ke siddhaant

cricket ke janm ke baare mein vyaapak roop se sveekrut siddhaant yeh hai ki madhyayugeen kaal ki shurooaat mein veld, jo ki keint aur suseks ke beech sthit hai, ke krushi aur dhaatu ke kaam se jude samudaaya ne ise viksit kiya.[1] ye County aur padosi sare utkrushtata ke praarambhik kendra hua karte the aur yaheen se yeh khel jald hi London, jahaan iski sthaayi lokapriyta sunishchit thi aur barkashaayar, eseks, haimpashaayar aur midlaseks jaise dakshin ke County mein pahuncha.[2]

Edward II (kaisal ke England ke itihaas mein darshaaya) apni javaani mein kreag nibhaai.

us samay bahut saare shabdon ke aam upayog hua karte the, jo "cricket" naam ke liye mumkin srot maane jaate hain. 1598 mein sabse aaranbhik kaal ke gyaat sandarbh mein yeh krekket (creckett) kahalaata tha. dakshin-poorv England aur flaindars ke praant, jo tab baragundi ke dach ke antargat tha, ke beech majaboot madhyayugeen vyaapaar sambandh ke havaale se kaha ja sakta hai ki yeh naam madhya dach[3] ke krik (-A), yaani chhadi se vyutpann hai; ya fir puraani angreji ke krik ya kraaike arthaat baisaakhi ya laathi se liya gaya hai.[4] saamuel Johnson ke angreji bhaasha ke shabdakosh (1755) mein unhonne cricket ki vyutpatti "kraaike, sakson, ek chhadi" se bataaya hai.[2] puraani fraanseesi bhaasha mein, krikvet ka matlab lagta hai ki ek kism ka mugadar ya chhadi hua karta tha, haalaanki yeh kroket ka mool ho sakta hai.[4] ek anya sambhaavit srot madhya dach shabd krikstol sanbhaavya srot hai, jiska arth ek lamba halka stool hai, jiska upayog church mein ghutne tekane ke liye kiya jaata tha, iska aakaar shurooaati cricket mein istemaal honevaale do stump wicket se milta-julata tha.[5] baun yunivrsiti ke Europeeya bhaasha ke visheshagya haainar gilmestar ke anusaar, hockey ke liye madhya dach bhaasha ka shabd met di (krik Kate) sen [met de (krik ket)sen] (arthaat chhadi ke saath peechha karna) se "cricket" ki vyutpatti hui hai.[6] gilmestar ka maanana hai ki yeh khel mool roop se flemi‍ayan mool ka hai, lekin is maamale mein vahaan ab bhi anishchitta bani hui hai.[7] sambhavat: cricket bachchon dvaara hi aavishkrut hai aur kai peedhiyon se ‍aanivaarya taur par bachchon ke khel ke roop mein yeh jaari raha hai.[8] geind feinkane ko puraana khel maankar, sambhavat: iska chalan lakdi ki geind se hua ho, jise lakshya tak pahunchane se rokane ke liye ballebaaj dvaara rokane ki koshish ki jaati thi. mool roop se bhed ke oon ki gaanth (ya fir patthar ya chhoti lakdi ka gola) ko geind; chhadi ya gaderiye ki laggi ya koi anya krushi upakaran ko balla; aur ek tipaahi ya ped ke thoonth ko ek praveshadvaar (jaise ki wicket dwaar) ko wicket maan kar bhed ke chaaraagaah ya vrukshaviheen sthaan par yeh khel hua karta tha. ho sakta hai, is khel ka aavishkaar 1300 se pehle kisi samay naurman ya plaantaajenet ke samay mein hua ho; ya fir 1066 se pehle sakson kaal mein.[9] cricket tatvat: stoolabaul, raaundars aur besabaul ki tarah hi ek prakaar ka khel hai, lekin yeh inmein se kisase viksit hua ya vipreet kram mein anya khel isse viksit hue, ise tay naheen kiya ja sakta hai.[2] is nirdisht kshetr ke baare mein oksafordashaayar mein stoolabaul par 1523 sandarbh hain; ho sakta hai yeh kisi aise khel ka jaatigt shabd ho, jismein geind ko kisi bhi tarah se balle ya chhadi se maara jaata ho.[10] 18veen shataabdi ke sandarbhon mein cricket ke saath stoolabaul ka sanyojan kiya jaae to yeh saaf sanket deta hai ki yeh ek alag kaaryakalaap tha.[11]

"kreg"

guruvaar 10 March 1300 ko (jooliyn calendar, jabki gregoriyn saal 1301 hoga), England ke raaja Edward pratham ke niji khaate mein John di leek of moneej ko di gayi us dhan raashi ka bhi ullekh hai, jo unhonne vestaminstar aur neveden mein Yuvraj ‍aedavard ke "kreg aur anya khel" khelne ke silsile mein bhugataan kiya tha.[2] Rajkumar Edward, vels ke bhaavi Yuvraj ki umr us samay 15 varsh thi. maana jaata hai ki "kreg" cricket ka aaranbhik roop tha.[12] is ‍asoch ke samarthan mein koi pramaan naheen hai aur ho sakta hai kreg ekdam se kuchh alag hi ho.[2] aisa kaha gaya hai ki kreg kraik ki puraani vartani hai,[4] is aayarish shabd ka arth aamod, manoranjan, ya sukhad sanbhaashan hota hai. kraik (crack) shabd ka yeh arth aayarish angreji, skautish angreji aur poorvottar England ke jaurdi mein paaya jaata hai. Ireland mein kraik (crack) ke bajaae kraik (craic) vartani jyaada prachalit hai.[13]

praarambhik nishchit sandarbh

gildaford mein the royal graamar school jahaan John dereek aur unke dost "cricket" khela karte the.

kaheen bhi cricket khele jaane ka praarambhik nishchit sandarbh 1598 ke ek adaalati maamale se milta hai, jo iski pushti karta hai ki 1550 ke aas-paas yeh gilford, sare ke kisi maidaan mein khela jaata tha.[2] yeh mukadama ek vidyaalaya ke bhookhand ke svaamitv par uthe ek vivaad se sambandhit raha hai. gilford sthit adaalat ne somvaar 17 January 1597 (jooliyn taareekh, gregoriyn calendar ke 1598 ke baraabar) ko 59 varsheeya mrutyu sameekshak John derik ke bayaan ko suna, jinhonne apni gavaahi mein kaha ki pachaas saal pehle ve apne doston ke saath us sthaan par "kreket" (creckett) khela karte the. vah school gilford royal graamar school tha.[2] 1598 mein, gyovni floriyo ke itaalavi-angreji shabdakosh mein cricket ka ullekh tha. sgileyar (sgillare) shabd ki unki paribhaasha thi: "tu mek a nvaayaj ej a cricket (keet), tu play cricket-a-wicket, end bi meri" (ek jhingoor ki tarah shor machaane ke liye, chalo cricket-wicket khelein aur maja karein).[14] floriyo pehle lekhak hain jo ek keet aur ek khel ke sandarbh mein "cricket" ko paribhaashit karne ke liye jaane jaate hain. 1611 mein apne shabdakosh ke baad ke sanskaran mein, floriyo ne nishkarsh diya ki "jab ham cricket a wicket, ya gigeogi kehte hain" to "tu play cricket-a-wicket" ka fritfrit (frittfritt) ke sandarbh mein yaun saahacharya se sambandh hota hai aur dibaateekeyar ko is tarah paribhaashit kiya "bistar tak gigeogi ki aavaaj ke saath kaamukata se kisi maada ka jhankaaran".[15]

graameen cricket ka vikaas: 1611-1660

vayask bhaageedaari ki shurooaat

1611 mein, raindal kautagrev dvaara prakaashit ek fraanseesi-angreji shabdakosh mein sanjnyaa kraus (crosse) ko is prakaar paribhaashit kiya gaya hai "the krookd staif vheyaravid bvauyaj play eight cricket" (ek mude hue dande ke saath ladke cricket khelne jaaya karte).[4] is shabd ka kriya roop krausar (crosser) hai, jise "tu play eight cricket" paribhaashit kiya gaya.[4] haalaanki kautagrev ke shabdakosh mein cricket ko bachchon ke khel ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai, jaisa ki gildaford ke schooli bachchon baare mein oopar kaha gaya hai, lekin isi samay ismein vayaskon ki bhaageedaari shuroo ho gayi thi.[4]

1611 mein bhi saseks mein cricket ka pehla nishchit ullekh milta hai aur paadari ki adaalat ke record mein darj hai ki pashchim saseks ke sidlasham ke do palleevaasi istar ravivaar ko church naheen aa paae kyonki ve cricket khel rahe the. un par 12 peins ka jurmaana lagaaya gaya aur unhein praayashchit karni padi. 1613 mein, ek anya adaalati maamale mein darj hai ki gildaford ke nikat vaanabro mein kisi par "cricket dande" se hamla kiya gaya.[16]

iske alaava is avadhi mein, 1640 ke ek adaalati maamale se keint mein cricket ka pehla nishchit ullekh khoj nikla gaya, jisme darj hai ki "lagbhag tees varshon se" (masalan, 1610 E.san.) se chevening mein "veld aur apalaind" banaam "chalakhil" mein "kriketing" ho raha hai. yeh sabse aaranbhik gyaat graameen cricket match hai aur ye pratiyogitaaen 17veen sadi ke poorvaarddh mein lokapriya ban gayeen. yeh mukadama us bhoomi se sambandhit raha jis par yeh khel khela gaya tha.[17]

1617 mein, 18 varsheeya olivr kraumavel London mein cricket aur football khela karta tha.[2] 1622 ko, ravivaar 5 May ke din pashchim saseks sthit chichestar ke sameep bauksagrov ke pallivaasiyon par girja ke kabristaan mein cricket khelne ke liye mukadama chalaaya gaya. mukadama chalaane ke teen kaaran the: pehla to yeh ki isse ek sthaaneeya up-niyam ka ullanghan hota tha; doosra yeh ki isse girjaaghar ki khidkiyaan toot bhi sakti theen; aur teesara kaaran tha cricket ke balle ki chot se kisi chhote bachche ka bheja baahar aa ja sakta hai! (a little childe had like to have her braines beaten out with a cricket batt!).[16] antim kaaran tha choonki us samay ballebaaj ko geind ko do baar hit karne ki anumati hua karti thi aur ballebaaj ke paas kshetrarakshan bahut hi khatarnaak hua karta tha, baad mein hui do ghatnaaon ne sakhti ke saath iski pushti ki.

1624 mein, poorvi saseks sthit horstad keins mein tab ek kshetrarakshak jaispar vinl ki maut ho gayi jab ballebaaj Edward taai ne catch out hone se bachane ke prayaas mein geind ko dubaara hit kiya. is prakaar shreemaan vinl cricket khelte hue maut ka sabse praarambhik darj record hain. yeh maamala mrutyu sameekshak ki adaalat mein darj hua, jahaan faisale mein ise ek durbhaagyapoorn durghatana maana gaya.[18] yeh dukhad ghatna 1647 mein fir ghati jab pashchim saseks ke selse mein ek ballebaaj dvaara geind ko dubaara hit karte samay henari brand naamak khilaadi ki maut ho gayi.[19] 1744 mein jab pehla cricket ka kaanoon banaaya gaya, tab geind ko do baar maarana gair-kaanooni ho gaya aur is niyam ko todne par ballebaaj ko out kar dene ka praavadhaan bana.[20] 1624 ke mukadame ke record se pushti hoti hai ki horstad keins aur pashchim hothali naamak do gaanv match mein shaamil rahe aur graameen cricket ke vikaas ke aur bhi saboot milte hain.[18]

lagbhag 1630 se paraavartan tak, shuddhataavaadi prabhaav ke varshon mein ravivaar ko khelne ke muddon ke anek ullekh paadari ki adaalat ke record mein milte hain. inse antar-palli maichon ke khele jaane ke sanket milte hain, lekin 1660 ke paraavartan se pehle County ki pratinidhi teemon ki sthaapana ka koi sanket naheen milta.[2] bade paimaane par juaa khele jaane ya angreji gruhayuddh se pehle sanrakshan ke koi saboot naheen milte aur ye vo kaarak hain jo 18veen sadi mein "pratinidhi" teemon ke gathan ke prerak bane. aise mein, yeh nishkarsh nikaala hi jaana chaahiye ki yuddh se pehle khela jaanevaala cricket sirf chhote star ka tha: arthaat, graameen cricket tha.[2]

graameen cricket ka 18veen sadi mein falana-foolana jaari raha. 1717 mein, saseks sthit harstapiyrapvaayant ke Thomas marcheint naamak ek kisaan ne apni daayari mein pehli baar cricket ka jikr kiya hai. 1727 tak, unhonne visheshakar apne sthaaneeya club aur is khel ke baare mein anek tippani ki hai. unka beta "hamaari palli" ke liye khelega, ve aksar harstapiyrapvaaint team ko isi naam se pukaara karte the.[21]

dhaarmik vishraamadin mein rookaavat

1642 mein jab angreji gruhayuddh shuroo hua, tab laaaing sansad ne thiyetaron par pratibandh laga diya, jise shuddhataavaadiyon ne asveekrut kar diya. haalaanki kuchh isi tarah ki kaarravaai kuchh khelon ke khilaaf ki gayi, lekin is baat ka koi saboot naheen ki cricket ko bhi pratibandhit kiya gaya ho. "dhaarmik vishraamadin bhang" naheen ki jaaya, sivaaya is pratibandh ke Commonwealth ke dauraan aur usase pehle is baat ke sandarbh hain ki is khel ko sveekruti mil gayi thi: kromavel khud hi ek yuva khilaadi rah chuke the. 17veen sadi ke poorvaarddh ke dauraan "is khel ne apni pakad majaboot ki"[22], vishesh roop se poorvi-dakshini kaauntiyon mein. Commonwealth ke dauraan aabhijaatya varg apni riyaasaton se baahar jaakar manabahalaav ke liye graameen cricket ka rukh kiya, 1660 mein Commonwealth ke samaapt hone ke baad jab ve London laute to unhein apne saath lete gaye.[22]

1628 mein, pashchim saseks sthit chichestar ke poorvi laaveint ke ek khel se sambandhit girjaaghar mukadame se pata chalta hai ki yeh khel ravivaar ke din khela jaata tha. bachaav pakshon mein se ek ne tark diya ki unhonne shaam ki praarthana ke dauraan naheen khela, balki uske pehle aur baad mein khela. isse usaka kuchh bhala naheen hua, us par 12d ka vaidhaanik jurmaana laga aur praayashchit karne ka aadesh diya gaya. agale ravivaar ko ekatrit hue poore poorvi laaveint ke aage apna aparaadh kaboolate hue usane praayashchit kiya.[23]

gruhayuddh se pehle ke aur bhi teen sandarbh hain. dashamaansh vivaad ko lekar 1636 ke adaalati maamale ke henari maabink naam ke gavaah ne pramaanit kiya ki usane sare mein pashchim horsale ke "paarke mein" cricket khela.[2][10] 1637 ko, 26 fravari ke din ravivaar ki shaam ki praarthana ke dauraan midharst, pashchim saseks ke pallivaasiyon dvaara cricket khele jaane ka ek anya maamala girjaaghar adaalat ke record mein darj hai.[24] 1640 mein, kaintarabari ke kareeb maidaston aur harableindaaun ke shuddhataavaadi paadariyon ne cricket ko apavitr karaar diya, vishesh roop se agar ravivaar ke din khela jaaya.[25]

1654 mein, keint ke elatham mein ravivaar ke din cricket khelne ke liye teen logon par mukadama chalaaya gaya. shuddhataavaadi choonki satta mein ab poore damakham ke saath the, kromavel ka sanrakshit raaj pichhle saal sthaapit ho chuka tha, isliye jurmaana doguna 24 peins (do shiling) kar diya gaya. bachaav paksh ko cricket khelne ke liye naheen, balki "vishraamadin mein rookaavat" daalne ke liye jimmevaar thaharaaya gaya.[4] isi tarah, jab kromavel ke aayukton ne do saal ke baad Ireland mein "anuchit jamaghat" ke aadhaar par khelakood ko pratibandhit kiya, tab is baat ka pramaan naheen hai ki yeh pratibandh cricket par laagoo tha ya naheen, shaayad us samay tak yeh khel Ireland naheen pahuncha tha.[26]

shaukiya cricket ki shuruaat

shaukiya aur peshevar khilaadiyon ke beech cricket ke saamaajik vibhaajan ki shurooaat, jisse antat: jeintalamain banaam khilaadi ki saalaana pratiyogita ka vikaas hua, ka pata Charles pratham ke shaasanakaal mein chal sakta hai. 1629 mein keint ke raking ke ek paadari henari kafin par pradhaan paadari ke court dvaara ravivaar ki shaam praarthana ke baad cricket khelne ke liye mukadama chalaaya gaya. unhonne kaha ki unke bahut saare saathi khilaadi "pratishthi‍at aur sabhya vyakti" hain.[27][28] yeh bayaan kuleen varg ke beech cricket ki badhti lokapriyta ka pehla saboot hai.[27]

vah kuleen varg hi hai jisne cricket mein bade paimaane par jue ki shurooaat ki aur inmein se kuchh juaariyon ne aage chal kar apni jeet ki sambhaavana ko pukhta karanevaale chuninda khilaadiyon ki team banaayi aur uske sanrakshak ban gaye. Commonwealth ke dauraan, raajaneetik jarurat se juaa kam mahatvapoorn ho gaya. cricket mein juaa ka puraana sandarbh 1664 ke ek adaalati maamale ke record mein milta hai, ismein isi saal 29 May ko keint ke koksaheeth mein hue khel par lagi baaji ka bhugataan naheen kiya gaya tha. dilchasp baat hai ki baaji baarah momabattiyon ki thi, lekin pratibhaagiyon mein sthaaneeya kuleen shaamil ho gaye.[29] 1652 mein, krainabruk mein John raibasan, eskvaair aur anya ke khilaaf ek maamale mein "cricket naam ke kisi avaidh khel" ka jikr kiya gaya. jaahir hai, raibasan kuleen varg ka sadasya tha, lekin bachaav paksh ke anya sabhi majadoor varg ke the.[30]

aage chal kar cricket ne ek aise khel ke roop mein apni pehchaan banaayi jisne varg vibhaajan ko baat diya, lekin is beech sabhya logon ke cricket ko "shaukiya" naam dekar unke aur peshevar khilaadiyon, jo nichle saamaajik varg ke the, vishesh roop se majadoor varg; ke beech ke antar ko spasht kiya jaane laga.[31] shaukiya keval ve naheen the, jo khaali vakt mein cricket khel liya karte the, balki ve khaas tarah ke pehli shreni ke cricketer bhi the, jo 1962 tak aadhikaarik roop se astitv mein rahe; jab shaukiya aur peshevaron ke beech ke antar ko khatm kar diya gaya tab sabhi pehli shreni ke khilaadi naam ke peshevar ban gaye. jahaan tak paarishramik ki baat hai, shaukiya khilaadi khelne ke liye vyaya ki maang karte, jabki peshevaron ko vetan ya shulk ka bhugataan kiya jaata tha.[32] vidyaalayon, vishvavidyaalayon aur doosare shikshan keindron mein paathyakram ya paathyakrametar gatividhi ke roop mein khele jaanevaala khel shaukiya cricket ka vistaar hai. vidyaalayon aur vishvavidyaalayon ne "utpaadan pankti" ka gathan kiya, jahaan lagbhag sabhi pehli shreni ke shaukiya khilaadi taiyaar hote.[4]

John charchil ek javaan aadmi ke roop mein.vah 1660s mein school mein cricket khela karte the.

schoolon ke aaspaas khele jaanevaale cricket ke 17veen shataabdi ke kuchh sandarbh hain, lekin yeh Commonwealth ke samay mein itaun college aur vindachestar college ke hain.[4] khel ka ek sandarbh 1665 mein London ke seint paul school ka bhi hai, jo maarlaboro ke pratham Duke John charchil se sambandhit hai, jahaan unhonne adhyayan kiya tha.[4] social history of inligsh cricket naamak apni kitaab mein derek birle ne tippani ki hai ki school cricket "raajaaviheen ya sankramanakaal" (1649-1660) mein "jeevant aur badhiya tha". unhonne anumaan lagaaya ki England ke "dakshin-poorv mein harek schooli ladke yeh khel jarur jaante honge".[4] haalaanki, unhein sandeh hai ki is dauraan yeh khel kisi bhi school ke paathyakram ka hissa raha hoga. itaun aur vestaministar school ke alaava, 17veen shataabdi ke sabhi schoolon mein sthaaneeya bharti hua karti thi aur varg ka bhedabhaav naheen tha. iseeliye, gareeb aur ameer parivaaron ke bete ek saath khela karte.[4] 1646 aur 1652 ke uparokt kaanooni maamale is baat ke saboot hain ki kuleen aur majadoor varg milkar cricket khela karte the.

1647 mein ek laitin kavita ke kalevar mein vinchestar college mein cricket khele jaane ka sanbhaavya sandarbh hai; haimpashaayar mein cricket ka yeh praarambhik gyaat ullekh hai.[4] hores vaulapol dvaara ki gayi ek tippani is baat ki pushti karti hai ki 18veen shataabdi ki pehli timaahi ke dauraan itaun college mein cricket khela jaata tha.[33] cricket ka puraana sandarbh 1710 mein Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya mein khele jaane ka hai aur in donon pratishthaanon ke saath rahe William goldavin ne graameen cricket match par 1706 mein 95 panktiyon ki ek laitin kavita likhi thi. ise in kerataamen pila (geind ke ek khel par) kaha gaya aur yeh unke muse juveniles mein prakaashit hua.[34] saimyual Johnson jab kehte hain ki unhonne Oxford vishvavidyaalaya cricket khela, lagbhag isi dauraan cricket vahaan shuroo hua hoga, haalaanki poorv ullikhit taareekh 1729 hai.[35]

shurooaati cricket ke niyam aur saamagri

shuruaati cricket khilaadi apne rojamarra ke poshaak mein hi khela karte the aur dastaane ya pad jaisi koi suraksha saamagri naheen hua karti. aartilri ground mein cricket ke vikaas ko darshaati 1743 ki ek peinting mein ballebaaj aur geindabaaj ko safed shart, brichij, safed ghutne tak ki lanbaaivaala stauking aur bakal vaale joote ke saath dikhaaya gaya hai. wicket-keepar fatuhi ke alaava ek jaisi poshaak pahane hue hai. anpaayar aur score ka hisaab rakhanevaala teen-chauthaai lanbaai vaale kot aur tikoni topi pahane hain. shart aur stauking ke alaava koi bhi poshaak safed naheen hai aur kisi ne dastaana aur pad naheen pahan rakha hai. baul ki tarah maidaan mein geind ko do stump aur un par lagi ek gilleevaale wicket ki taraf vibhinn gati mein ludhkaaya jaata hai. ballebaaj aadhunik hockey stick jaise dikhnevaale balle, maidaan mein geind se nipatne ke liye yeh aakaar aadarsh hota hai, se geind ko thokata hai.[36][37]

1720s ke cricket balla ek aadhunik hockey stick ki tarah ke aakaar ka tha taaki vah geind ko pehchaan sake jo peech par naheen tha.

bauksagrov mein 1622 maamale ke record mein cricket balle ka puraana sandarbh hai. cricket mein "bait" (balla) shabd keint aur saseks mein bada hi khaas tha, kyonki vahaan tateeya kshetr ke taskaron ko "baitamain" kaha jaata tha, kyonki ve kadal naamak dandenuma hathiyaar liye hote the. "chapate aakaar" ke balle (arthaat balle ka oopari hissa aais hockey stick ki banaavat wala) ka sabse puraana sandarbh bhi 1622 mein milta hai.[38] lagbhag 1720 tak bait shabd apekshaakrut virl hi raha. yeh shabd aamtaur par "staif" (sonta), "stev" (patara) ya "stick" (chhadi) ke liye istemaal hota tha. in shabdon ka kshetreeya istemaal hua karta tha: udaaharan ke liye, "stev" ka istemaal glausestar kshetr mein aur "bait" dakshin-poorv mein, jabki "staif" aur vishesh roop se "stick" vyaapak roop se istemaal hota tha.[6] bait shabd fraanseesi baitalador (balle), jiska aakaar tebil tennis ke bait jaisa tha, se aaya hai; iska istemaal dhobinon dvaara kapadon ko peetane ke liye hota tha.[39]

cricket geind ka sabse puraana sandarbh 1658 mein Edward filips ke mistri of love end elakveins mein milta hai.[2] 1722 mein bane gyaat niyam sanhita mein pitch 22 gaj lamba (arthaat ek naap) tha[40] aur maana jaata hai ki 1620 mein guntar ke naap ki shurooaat se is lanbaai ka istemaal hota raha hai.[41] 19veen sadi tak ek over mein chaar geind daale jaate the.[40]

wicket ka sabse puraana gyaat ullekh 1680 mein puraane baaibal ki panktiyon mein hai, jo aamantrit karta hai "tum sab jo cricket se aanand praapt karte ho, maarden mein chale aao, apne wicket gaad do".[42] maarden chichestar ke uttar mein pashchim saseks mein hai aur hainbledan ke bilkul kareeb, Hampshire ki County seema ke paar hai. 1770 ke dashak tak wicket do stump aur ek gilli ka hota tha. us samay tak wicket ka aakaar ooncha aur sankara tha, 1744 ke baad cricket ke niyam mein ise 22 inch lamba aur chhah inch chauda nirdhaarit kiya gaya. lekin 18veen shataabdi ki shurooaat ki tasveeron mein ise neecha aur chauda dikhaaya gaya hai, shaayad do feet chauda aur ek foot ooncha tha. halaki gilli ko thaame rahane ke liye stump ka sira kaantedaar hota tha aur maidaan mein stump ko gaadne ke liye usaki majabooti aur gilli ko bahut hi kushalata se rakhane ka ek maapdand hua karta tha, taaki stump par chot pahunchate hi vah aasaani se gir jaae.[6]

wicket ki utpatti ko lekar bahut saare anumaan hain, lekin yeh kehna paryaapt hoga ki 17veen shataabdi mein iski rooparekha bahut kuchh church ke stool ke sadrushya thi, jo ki kam oonchaaivaali aur chaudi thi. iske alaava stool ke pair stump kahalaate the, jisse is vichaar ko bal milta hai ki stool ka upayog shurooaat mein wicket ke roop mein hota tha.[6] great seint mereej church of Cambridge (1504-1635) ke charchavaardan ekaaunts ke anusaar, dakshin-poorv mein kabhi-kabhi church stool dach bhaasha mein" cricket" (krechket) kahalaata tha, yeh vahi naam hai jiska istemaal 1597 mein John derik dvaara is khel ke liye kiya gaya tha.[6]

17veen aur 18veen shataabdi mein cricket ke roop mukhyat: do the. ek singal (ekal) wicket tha, jaisa ki naam se jaahir hai, ismein sirf ek ballebaaj hota, haalaanki aksar ismein teen ya paanch ki team bhaag leti. doosra prakaar do ballebaaj ke saath "double wicket" ka hai aur ismein gyaarah khilaadiyon ki ek team hoti thi, jo do paari khelati thi.

puraane cricket mein aaj ki hi tarah do anpaayar hote the, lekin aadhunik square-leg anpaayar striker ke wicket ke kareeb khada hota tha. donon anpaayar ek balla liye hote, jiski jaroorat daudte hue ballebaaj ko sparsh karke apna run poora karne ke liye hoti thi.[43] do scorer maidaan mein baithate aur taileestik mein nishaan bana kar record darj karte, isi kaaran us samay run nauchej kahalaata tha.[44]

pramukh dhaara ke cricket ka vikaas: 1660-1700

1660 mein England mein raajashaahi ke paraavartan ke saath theatre khul gaye aur shuddhataavaadi sanpradaaya dvaara khelon par lagaaya gaya pratibandh turant utha liya gaya.[45] cricket manoranjan ka pramukh saadhan tha aur "yeh daanv lagaane ke liye aadarsh tha".[45] haalaanki Charles dviteeya ke samay mein khel ke sirf bikhre hue sandarbh hain, lekin yeh saaf hai ki iski lokapriyta badh rahi thi aur ismein vistaar bhi ho raha tha.[46]

1660 mein basant ke dauraan paraavartan prabhaavi roop se poora ho gaya tha aur is aitihaasik ghatna ko harshollaas ke saath manaane mein iske bhaageedaar aur iske samarthak donon hi shaamil the aur ismein cricket tatha anya khelon mein juaa khelne ki aajaadi thi.[46] kuchh niveshakon ne ismein badi hissedaari ke saath bhaag lene ki koshish ki aur team banaakar apni jeet ki sambhaavana ko behtar banaaya, jo ki theth muhalla XI se kaheen adhik majaboot thi.[45] tab tak, abhijaatya varg ne apne mukhya khelon mein ghuddaud aur peshevar mukkebaaji ke saath cricket ko apna liya.[22] yaheen se sanrakshan ki shurooaat hui, jo ki 18veen shataabdi mein cricket par niyantran ke jariye barkaraar raha.[45] pehli teemon ka pratinidhitv bahut saare muhallon ne kiya aur yahaan tak ki 1660 ke dashak mein poori County taiyaar ho gayi aur isi samay pehle "bhavya match" (sic) hue, gaanv ka cricket pramukh cricket ke roop mein viksit hua.[47]

vikaas ke is mahatvapoorn pahaloo se vyaavasaayikta ki shurooaat hui[45] abhijaatya varg ke log, jo paraavartan ke baad London se laute, viksit cricket ke prati utsuk the aur ve apne saath gaanv ke cricket ke kuchh sthaaneeya visheshagyon ko saath le liya, jinhein unhonne peshevar khilaadiyon ke roop mein niyukt kiya.[48] paraavartan ke ek ya do saal ke bheetar, "London ke samaaj mein match karavaana aur club banaana aam baat ho gayi".[48] khel par abhijaatya varg ka niyantran ho jaane se ek tarah ka "saamanti sanrakshan" sthaapit ho gaya, juaa ke liye isse milnevaale mauke se unke svaarth ko indhan milne laga aur isse agali shataabdi mein cricket ke vikaas ka paitarn nirdhaarit hua.[48]

kuchh paraavartanottar atikramon par shikanja kasane ki koshish ke roop mein "akkhad" sansad dvaara khel adhiniyam 1664 ko paarit kiya gaya.[49] daanv ko 100 pound tak seemit kar diya gaya, jo ki us samay har tarah se bada dhan tha,[46] aaj ke sandarbh mein pound ke lagbhag NaN ke baraabar hi tha. [50] aisa lagta hai ki 1697 tak cricket 50 ginni tak ka daanv aakarshit kar sakta tha aur agali shataabdi tak juaa ke jariye iske liye dhan muhaiya karaaya jaata raha.[51]

laaiseinsing press adhiniyam 1662, jise samaachaar-patra udyog par kadaai se niyantran karne ke liye laagoo kiya gaya tha, ke kaaran 17veen shataabdi ke baad ke charan mein sandarbh ke havaalon ki kami rahi.[52] cricket samet khel, khabaron ka vishay naheen tha, aadhikaarik record jaise ki adaalati maamale ya niji patron aur daayariyon mein is silsile mein kuchh sandarbh milte hain.

1666 mein richmaund ke sar Robert paastan dvaara likhe gaye patra mein richmaund green ka havaala hai, jo 18veen shataabdi mein khel ke liye ek ullekhaneeya sthaan ban gaya.[53] 1677 mein, saseks ke pratham arl Thomas lenaard ke bayaanon mein is baat ka bhi ullekh shaamil hai ki unhein "ye dikr" ke ek cricket match mein khele jaane ke liye £a3 ka bhugataan kiya ja raha tha, ukt sthaan poorvi saseks ke harstamonasiuks ke bahut kareeb tha.[54] 1671 mein, Edward baaund naam ke shakhs par vishraam ke din cricket khelne ka aarop lagaaya gaya aur fir bari kar diya gaya: paraavartan ke maddenajar ravaiya badal jaane ka yeh ek sanket tha. yeh maamala sare sthit shere ka tha.[55] 1694 mein sar John pelaham ke vrutaant mein leves mein cricket par daanv lagaane ke liye 2s 6d bhugataan ki baat darj hai.[56]

richmand green mein 1666 mein khela gaya cricket.

1685 mein mitchem cricket club ki sthaapana hui, club ka khel vaheen hua jo aaj mitchem cricket green ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. is jagah par tabhi se cricket khela jaata hai.[57] mitchem duniya ke sabse puraane cricket club ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, kyonki 1685 se pehle kisi club ki sthaapana ka koi pramaan naheen hai. kroyadaun, daartaford aur London, in sabki sthaapana 1720 ke dashak tak hui, lekin inki sthaapana ki taareekh gum ho gayi hai, haalaanki London club ka vaastavik sandarbh 1722 mein tha.[58]

London CC mukhyat: finsabari ke aartilri ground se juda tha. is sthal ka jikr pehli baar 1725 mein hua, jab 7 May ko onarebal aartilri company ke kaarya vivran mein kaha gaya ki iska istemaal cricket ke liye hota tha, ismein ek tippani thi jo kehti hai "cricket khilaadiyon dvaara maidaan ke ghaas ka durupayog kiya gaya".[59] 18veen shataabdi ke madhya mein aartilri ground mahatvapoorn cricket ka vishesh sthal ban gaya.[60]

1695 mein sansad ne 1662 ke laaiseinsing adhiniyam ke naveeneekaran ka faisala kiya aur isse 1696 mein is kaanoon ki samaapti se press ki aajaadi ka raasta saaf ho gaya.[61] 1689 mein adhikaar vidheyak ke baad pehle hi censorship mein dheel de di gayi thi.[52] isi samay se samaachaar patron mein cricket sambandhi khabarein prakaashit ki ja sakti theen, lekin ऎsi vistrut khabarein prakaashit karne ke maamale mein khud ko dhaalane mein samaachaar udyog ko kaafi samay lag gaya.[62] kisi match ki gyaat sabse pehli khabar Budhvaar 7 July 1697 mein fauren post mein chhapi:

"pichhle saptaah ke madhya mein saseks mein cricket ka ek bada match hua, jismein donon taraf gyaarah khilaadi the aur unalogon ne pratyek khel pachaas ginni ke liye khela".[56]

baaji ke prastaav iski sthirta ke mahatva ki pushti karte hain aur ek paksh mein gyaarah sadasya hone ka tathya yeh bataata hai ki do majaboot aur susantulit teemein juta karti theen.[56] anya koi vivran naheen diya gaya hai, lekin report is baat ka vaastavik pramaan hai ki paraavartan ke agale varshon mein oonchi baaji ke liye bade match ke roop mein sheersh shreni ka cricket khelne ka prachalan tha.[62] shaayad yeh antar-County match (arthaat saseks banaam keint ya sare) tha aur yeh aarambh mein sheersh shreni ke cricket match ke roop mein jaana jaata tha. saseks ko cricket sthal ke taur par diye jaane se yeh lagbhag tay ho jaata hai ki richmaund ke pratham Duke Charles lenauks iske ek sanrakshak the.[62]

18veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein angreji cricket

sanrakshak

Charles leinnoks, rikmand ka 1 Duke.

1702 mein richmaund ke Duke ke XI ne saseks mein aroondel XI ko hara diya. 14 December 1702 ko Duke ko kisi saul braidale dvaara bheji gayi raseed is khel ka srot thi. Duke dvaara bhugataan ki gayi raseed ek shinling va 6 peins ki thi, yeh raashi "arundel team ke viruddh cricket khelte samay Duke mahodaya ki braandi ke liye" kharch ki gayi thi. samjha jaata hai ki jeet ka jashn manaane ke liye braandi laayi gayi thi.[63]

1723 mein pratham Duke ke nidhan ke baad unke putr richmaund ke dviteeya Duke Charles lenauks ko turant cricket ka mukhya sanrakshak bana diya gaya aur agale pachaas saalon mein ve sesaks ke cricket ke jaanemaane sanrakshak ban gaye. dviteeya Duke, saseks ke anya sanrakshak va apne mitr sar William gej ke saath dostaana pratispardha ‍aka lutf uthaaya karte the. un donon ki teemon ne ek-doosare ke saath kai baar khela aur unke beech praarambhik gyaat pratispardha 20 July 1725 ko, kisi agyaat pratidvandviyon se sar William ki team ke haarne ke paanch din baad, hui. in donon khelon ke baare mein hamaari jaankaari ka aadhaar 16 July ko sar William dvaara Duke ko bheja gaya majaakiya patra hai. sar William ne dukh jaataaya ki pichhle din "saal ke pehle match mein" ve "sharmanaak tareeke se haar gaye", lekin unhonne apne pratidvandvi ke baare mein kuchh naheen kaha. iske baad agale mangalvaar ko Duke ki team ke saath khelne ke liye ve taiyaar ho gaye aur "unke cricket match ko chhod kar har tarah se Duke ki safalta ki" unhonne kaamna ki.[64]

richmaund aur gej ke mukhya pratidvandvi medaston ke Edward sted (kabhi-kabhi "edavin steed" kaha jaata tha) the, jo keint ke pehle sanrakshak ke roop mein jaane jaate hain. richmaund aur gej ki saseks ki teemon ke sted ki keint team ke saath antar-County pratidvandvita ka lutf uthaae jaane se County championship ki avadhaarana janm leti hai.[65][66]

daanv ki shartein

sanrakshakon ne ghuddaud aur peshevar mukkebaaji ki hi tarah cricket mein dhan muhaiya karna sunishchit kiya, lekin cricket mein unki dilchaspi juaa khelne ke maukon par aadhaarit thi. 18veen shataabdi mein harek mahatvapoorn match fir chaahe vah sheersh shreni ka cricket ho ya ekal wicket ka; daanv lagaane ke liye hi khela gaya. praarambhik samaachaar-patron ne ise pahachaana aur match score prakaashit karne ki apeksha ve isse judi futakar baaton mein kaheen adhik roochi rakhate the. match kisne jeeta ke bajaae daanv kisne jeeta par khabarein hua karti theen.[47] kabhi-kabhi juaa vivaad ko janm deta tha aur jab pratidvandvi apne daanv ke liye kaanooni faisala chaahate to do match ka ant adaalat mein hota tha.

somvaar 1 September 1718 ko, islingatan ke vhaait kandyut field mein London aur rochestar panch club ke beech ek khel adhoora rah gaya tha kyonki rochestar khilaadiyon ne ise asanpoorn ghoshit karavaane ke prayaas mein iska bahishkaar kar diya tha. yeh isliye hua taaki ve daanv par lagaaya dhan apne paas hi rakh sakein. us samay London spasht roop se jeet raha tha. London khilaadiyon ne apni jeet ka daava karte hue mukadama kiya aur choonki khel adhoora tha isliye daanv par lage dhan ko lekar mukadama to banta hi tha. adaalat ne ise "khelkar faisala karne" ka aadesh diya aur July 1719 mein aisa hua. rochestar ko jeetne ke liye chaar wicket ke saath 30 ki jaroorat thi, magar vo 21 run se haar gayi.[67]

1724 mein, chingaford banaam Edward sted XI ka khel beech mein hi samaapt ho gaya kyonki chingaford team ne aage ka khel khelne se inkaar kar diya, jabki sted jeet ke kareeb thi. maamala adaalat pahuncha aur, jaisa ki 1718 mein hua tha, khelkar faisala karne ko kaha gaya taaki anumaanat: daanv poora kiya ja sake. yeh gyaat hai ki mukhya nyaayaadheesh prait ne maamale ki adhyakshata ki thi aur aadesh diya ki daartaford breint mein khelkar iska faisala kiya jaaya, haalaanki yeh spasht naheen hai ki yeh mool sthaan hi tha. khel 1726 mein poora hua.[68] yeh match eseks mein cricket khele jaane ka sabse praarambhik sandarbh hai, maana jaata hai ki chingaford mool sthal raha hai aur eseks team ko pehli baar shaamil karne ke liye jaana jaata hai.

sanrakshakon aur khel aayojakon ke beech kisi samasya ke samaadhaan ke liye khel ke shuroo hone se pehle aartikls of association hitdhaarak sahamat ho gaye. khel ke niyamon ko paribhaashit karne ke maddenajar yeh avadhaarana mahatvapoorn thi aur aage chal kar ise cricket ke niyam ke roop mein sanhitaabaddh kar liya gaya.[69]

18veen shataabdi ke shurooaati match

18veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein the post bvauya aur the post main naam ki patrikaaen cricket vijnyaaapanon ka upayogi srot theen. 1700 mein klaifam kauman mein honevaale maichon ki shrrunkhala ki ghoshana 30 March ko the post bvauya dvaara ki gayi thi. pehla match istar somvaar ko hua aur 10 pound aur 20 pound ke puraskaar daanv par lage the. match ko lekar koi report naheen mil paayi, isliye nateeja aur score agyaat hain. vigyaapan kehta hai ki donon paksh ki team mein das "jeintalamen" honge, lekin ismein shaamil hone ka nimantran "jeintalamen tatha anya" ko tha. taatparya spasht hai ki cricket ne donon hi haasil kiya - sanrakshak, jisne 18veen shataabdi mein aarthik madad dene ka vaada kiya aur darshak, jisne iski lokapriyta ke sthaayitv ko pramaanit kiya.[70] 24 July 1705 mein, the post main ne keint ke maaling mein pashchim keint banaam chaatham ke beech donon pakshon mein 11 khilaadi ke khel ki ghoshana ‍aki.[70]

1 aur 3 July 1707 ko, kroedaun mein London ne do baar khela, pehla khel sambhavat: kroedaun ke dupas hil mein khela gaya aur doosra khel haulabaurn sthit laimb ke kandyut field mein khela gaya. donon maichon ka vigyaapan the post main dvaara is tarah prakaashit kiya gaya "do bade cricket match London aur kroedaun ke beech khele (jaaenge) (sic); pehla match 1 July ko mangalvaar ko kroedaun mein aur doosra holaborn ke paas lainb ke kandyut field mein mangalvaar ke baad 3 July ko hoga". match ke baad ki koi report praapt naheen ho saki, isliye nateeja aur score agyaat hain.[70]

aaranbhik gyaat match jismein nishchit taur par County team thi, keint banaam sare ke beech Budhvaar 29 July 1709 ko daartaford breint mein khela gaya. iska vigyaapan post main mein pichhle shanivaar ko prakaashit kiya gaya aur yeh 50 pound ke daanv ke liye khela gaya. 18veen shataabdi mein keint mein daartaford breint lokapriya sthal tha aur shaayad 17veen shataabdi mein match ke liye upayog hota tha. samjha jaata hai ki is samay ka daartaford keint club sarvashresht tha, yeh na keval match sthal tha, balki team ka keindrasthal bhi tha, jabki sare team kai sare muhallon se banaayi gayi thi aur unke sanrakshakon ki abhidtt hoteen.[71]

ek khilaadi daartaford ka William baadale (1680-1768) tha, jisne ho sakta hai 1709 ke match mein bhaag liya tha, vah praarambhik samay ka badhiya khilaadi tha, jiska naam darj hai. vah "England ka sabse anubhavi khilaadi maana gaya" hai aur 1700 se 1725 ki mein vah jaroor pramukh khilaadi raha hoga.[72] 1720 ke dashak mein jinhein sakriya hone ke liye jaana jaata hai, aise doosare achhe khilaadiyon mein keint ke Edward sted, sare ke edamand chaipamain aur Stefan dinget, London ke tim kolamain aur saseks ke Thomas vemaark the.

daartaford banaam London

cricket ke itihaas mein sabse bade pratidvandvi daartaford aur London club the, jinke beech pehla gyaat match 1722 mein khela gaya tha. Budhvaar 19 August 1719 ko, London banaam keint ka match white kandyut field mein khela gaya aur ise keint ne jeeta. yahi shurooaati gyaat nishchit nateeja hai. report mein kaha gaya, "ek badi raashi" ke liye team ne yeh match khela tha.[68]

shanivaar 9 July 1720 ko, white kandyut field mein London banaam keint khela gaya, jise London ne jeeta. is match mein London ke do kshetrarakshak sir takaraane se buri tarah ghaayal hue the.[68] H ti vaaghorn ne likha hai ki is khel ke baad cricket ke vigyaapan aur reporting kuchh varshon ke liye band kar di gayi aur unhein aashcharya hai ki is khel ko khatarnaak maankar aisa kiya gaya.[68] asli kaaran south si babal ka prabhaav tha. jab saaooth si company divaaliya ho gayi, tab 1720 mein iske dhah jaane se poori arthavyavastha par vyaapak prabhaav pada aur kuchh cricket sanrakshakon sahit anek poorv samruddh niveshak barbaad ho gaye. kam riporton ka kaaran raha sahaayata aur nivesh ko rok diya jaana, iseeliye match bhi kam hue.[73]

Budhvaar, 18 July 1722 ko islingatan mein London banaam daartaford ka match the weekly journal ke 21 July 1722 ke ank ka vishay tha. match ka nateeja agyaat hai. 1723 mein pramukh tori raajaneetijnya aur Oxford ke arl Robert haarle ne apne journal mein likha: "jaise ham shahar ke baahar nikalte hain, daartaford ke heeth mein tonabrij aur daartaford ke logon ko cricket ke khel mein poori garmajoshi se vyast paate hain, jismein poore England ke keintavaasi sabse adhik prasiddh hain aur keint aur daartaford ke log sarvotkrushtata ka daava karte hain".[74] yeh lagbhag tay hai ki yeh khel daartaford breint mein khela gaya tha.[74]

vruhaspativaar 18 June 1724 ko, kainingatan kauman ke paas, jahaan aaj oval hai, London banaam daartaford ka match aaranbhik gyaat match tha. nateeja agyaat hai.[75] somvaar 10 August 1724 ko, islingatan mein ek match hua (nateeja agyaat hai), jismein penasharst, tanabrij aur vaadharst muhallaavaasiyon ki sanyukt team banaam daartaford ke beech match hua. match dekhanevaale John daavasan dvaara ise apni daayari mein darj kiya gaya hai. iske vistrut vivran ki jaankaari naheen hai, lekin shreemaan daavasan kehte hain, "yeh bahut hi bada match tha".[76]

England aur videshon mein cricket ka vikaas

shuruaati gyaat ullekh mein cricket dinaank shanivaar 6 May 1676 ko England se baahar khela gaya. ek daayari lekhak henari tong, jo Turkey ke aleppo (ab Syria mein) mein ek british mission ka hissa the, ne likha hai ki "kam se kam chaalees angrej" manoranjak prayojanon ke liye shahar se baahar chale gaye aur, raatri bhojan ke liye ek achha sthaan paakar vahaan tamboo gaad diya, "cricket" (krickett) sahit unke paas "kai tarah ke manabahalaav aur khelakood" ke saadhan the. chhah baje ve "sahi-salaamat ghar vaapas aa gaye".[77]

is samay tak, cricket Bhaarat, uttar America[78] aur vest Indies mein shuroo ho chuka tha, lekin pehla nishchit ullekh 18veen sadi mein hi milta hai. 1709 mein, tatkaaleen angrej upanivesh varjeeniya ke apne James reevar estate mein William baayard ne cricket khela tha. nayi duniya mein cricket khele jaane ka yeh sabse praarambhik ullekh hai.[79] 1721 mein, East India company ke angrej naavikon dvaara Baroda ke paas kaimbe mein cricket khele jaane ki khabar hai aur yeh Bhaarat mein cricket khelne ka sabse praarambhik sandarbh hai. Bhaarat mein aur uske baad Pakistan, Sri Lanka aur Bangladesh mein cricket ki shuruaat aur sthaapana East India company ke maadhyam se hui.[10]

ab test cricket khelanevaale anya teen desh 1725 tak angrej upaniveshavaadiyon dvaara gruhit naheen the. Australia aur New Zealand ko aanshik roop se abel tasmaan ne 1640 ke dashak[80] mein khoja tha, lekin tab bhi vahaan kramash: Australiaee aadivaasi aur maaori aadivaasiyon ka hi nivaas tha. dakshin Africa mein pehla Europeeya upanivesh mangalvaar 6 April 1652 ko sthaapit hua, jab dach East India company ne vartamaan kep taaun ke paas table ki khaadi par kep colony ki sthaapana ki.[81]

aisa lagta hai ki poore british dveepon mein failane se pehle cricket ki shuruaat ameriki deshon aur Bhaarat mein ho chuki thi. is angrej khel ke sabse adhik safal club yaurkashaayar cricket ke 1751 tak ke rikaard naheen hain. Ireland, Scotland aur vels ke cricket ke praarambhik ullekh aur baad 18veen sadi mein milte hain.[10]

England ki samudri yaatra aur vyaapaar prayojanon ne videsh mein cricket ke prasaar ko sunishchit kiya, jabki desh mein yeh parivhan aur sanchaar suvidha par buri tarah nirbhar raha, ye sabhi adhikaanshat: jal-prasaarit the aur yaatraaen samudra tateeya ya nadi ke jariye jalayaan se hua karateen.[82] sadak parivhan mein dheere-dheere sudhaar ho raha tha, 1706 mein sansad ne pehli baar shulk maarg traston ki sthaapana ki, sthaaneeya bhoosvaamiyon aur vyaapaariyon ko lekar banaaye gaye traston dvaara ek nishchit lanbaai ki sadkon par niyantran rakha jaata tha.[83] shulk maarg trast yaataayaat karke jariye sadkon ke rakharakhaav ka kaam kiya karte. sadak ke rakharakhaav ke liye yeh vyavastha agale saal 150 tak ek aam tareeka ban gayi aur England mein cricket ke prasaar mein isse sahaayata mili.[82]

nots aur avataran

  1. andaradaaun, prushth 6.
  2. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh altham, adhyaaya 1.
  3. flaindars ke samay mein madhya dach upayogi bhaasha thi.
  4. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g baarle, adhyaaya 1.
  5. bauven, prushth 33.
  6. a aa i E u David teri, the seveinth century game of cricket: a rikanstrakashan of the game . 15 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  7. "leech - 1597". Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. http://archive.is/GzqX. . 4 March 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  8. altham, prushth 24.
  9. John arault aur fred troomain, on cricket, BBC books, 1977.
  10. a aa i E boven, peepi. 261-267.
  11. maikakain, anuchhed 98, 361 aur 377.
  12. bauvein, prushth 29.
  13. Oxford angreji shabdakosh "kraik (sanjnyaa)" sens I.5.c.
  14. giovaani floriyo itaalavi/angreji shabdakosh: a world of vards (1598). 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  15. giovaani floriyo, queen aina's new world of vards (1611), f. 144 aur f. 198. 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  16. a aa maikakain, prushth xxxi.
  17. andaradaaun, prushth 4.
  18. a aa maikakain, peepi. xxxiii-xxxiv.
  19. maikakain, prushth xxxix.
  20. heyagaarth, prushth xvi.
  21. maikakain, anuchhed 2-24.
  22. a aa i vebar, prushth 10.
  23. maikakain, peepi. xxxiv-xxxvii.
  24. maikakain, peepi. xxxviii-xxxix.
  25. andaradaaun, peepi. 11-12.
  26. boven, prushth 267, jald se jald Ireland mein jaana jaata match ki taareekh ke roop mein 1792 record.
  27. a aa boven, prushth 45.
  28. birle, prushth 7.
  29. boven, prushth 47.
  30. andaradaaun, prushth 15.
  31. birle, adhyaaya 3.
  32. birle, adhyaaya 18.
  33. altham, prushth 66.
  34. altham, peepi. 24-25.
  35. major, prushth 45.
  36. Francis heymains ki cricket ait the aartileri ground ki chitrakala hai, 1743. yeh lords ke cricket ground par lataka hua hai.
  37. geindabaajon dvaara geind ko tappa dekar us geind ko adhik uchhaalana shuroo karne ke baad 1760 ke dashak mein aadhunik seedha balla viksit hua.
  38. ji.di maartinyoo, bait, baul, wicket aur all, sporting haindabuk, 1950.
  39. english ki Oxford dikshanari - "baitalador".
  40. a aa vijdan kriketars almanaik, "cricket itihaas mein tithiyaan" (1978). 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  41. Ian kreven, Martin gre aur geraldaain stonahaim Australiaee lokapriya sanskruti , british Australian stadeej association, 1994. Cambridge university press lokapriya sanskruti SBN 0521466679. prushth 27. 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  42. vaagahorn, prushth 3.
  43. altham, prushth 27.
  44. altham, prushth 28.
  45. a aa i E u leech - the orijin of major cricket. 10 January 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  46. a aa i birle, prushth 11.
  47. a aa birle, adhyaaya 2.
  48. a aa i altham, prushth 23.
  49. leech - 1664. 10 January 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  50. UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Officer (2010) "What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then?" MeasuringWorth.
  51. bakale, prushth 1.
  52. a aa leech - 1696. 10 January 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  53. old father thems site. 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  54. maikakain, prushth xl.
  55. major, prushth 31.
  56. a aa i maikakain, prushth xli.
  57. fil shau, the indipeindeint, 13 July 2003, cricket: aaftar 400 iyars, history is med nekast too the A323 . 6 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt. uddharan: "317 varshon ke liye mitchaim green nitya prayog cricket sthal mein raha hai".
  58. the weekly journal (London) ke ek patra mein 21 July 1722 dinaank.
  59. leech - 1725. 10 January 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  60. altham, peepi. 29-30.
  61. leech - 1695. 10 January 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  62. a aa i "leech - 1697". Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. http://archive.is/JgWX. . 28 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  63. maikakain, anuchhed 1.
  64. maikakain, anuchhed 19.
  65. vaigahorn, prushth 7.
  66. "1728 se champion County". Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. http://archive.is/PxOQ. . 17 October 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  67. bakale, prushth 2.
  68. a aa i E vaigahorn, peepi. 5-6.
  69. baarle, peepi. 18-19.
  70. a aa i vaigahorn, prushth 4.
  71. ji. bi. bakale, fresh laait on pre-viktoriyn cricket, kotarel, 1937.
  72. bakale, prushth 48.
  73. baarle, prushth 16.
  74. a aa daartaford cricket club ki website. 29 sitmbar 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  75. bakale, prushth 3.
  76. maikakain, anuchhed 18.
  77. heygaarth, prushth vi.
  78. Simon vorail, cricket, eneevan? , smithsoniyn insteetyooshan patrika, October 2006. 30 March 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  79. William byrd, the seekret daairi of William byrd of vestaovar, deittj prakaashan, 1941, peepi. 144-146.
  80. the tasmaan pej ait project gatenabarg of Australia. 29 sitmbar 2008.
  81. Roger bi bek, the history of south Africa, greenavud, 2000.
  82. a aa leech - 1706. 17 October 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  83. William albart, the tarnapaaik road system in inglaind 1663-1840, Cambridge university press, 1972.

avataran ke sootr

  • altham, Harry (1962). a histari of cricket volyoom 1 (1914 tak). George Allen aur anvin.
  • birle, derek (1999). a social of english cricket. oram.
  • boven, rolaind (1970). cricket: a histari of its growth end development. aayar end spauteesavood.
  • bakale, ji. bi. (1935). fresh laait on 18th seinchuainri cricket. kautrel.
  • hegaarth, aarthar (1862). skors end baayografij, volyoom 1 (1744-1826). lilivaait.
  • "leech, John (2007).". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. http://archive.is/eQ2xG. "fraum laads too laurds; the history of cricket: 1300 - 1787". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. http://archive.is/eQ2xG.
  • major, John (2007). mor den a game. haarparakolins.
  • maikken, team (2004). suseks cricket in the eteenth seinsyuainri. suseks rekord society.
  • andaradaaun, David (2000). staart of play. Allen len.
  • vaghorn, H.ti. (1906). the Don of cricket. ilektrik press.
  • vebar, Roy (1960). the finiks histari of cricket. finiks.