uttaraakhand


uttaraakhand
raajya
[[Image:
A Sunrise on Kalindi mountain Himalayas Uttarakhand India.jpg
Badri 18.JPG
Auli station, Uttarakhand, India 2011.jpg Governor’s House, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.jpg
Bengal-Tiger Corbett Uttarakhand Dec-2013.jpg
Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar.jpg
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samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
jila 13
' 9 November 2000
rajdhani deharaadoon
sabse bada nagar deharaadoon
raajyapaal
mukhyamantri hareesh raavat
vidhaan sabha (seatein) ekasadaneeya (71)
janasankhya
ghanatv
10116752[1] (19vaan)
• 189 /kimi2 (490 /varg meal)
saaksharata 80%
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) hindi, sanskrut[2]
kshetrafal 53,566 km² (20,682 sq mi) (18vaan)
ISO 3166-2 IN-UL
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: ua.nic.in
uttaraakhand raajachinh

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 30°a20′aN 78°a04′aE / 30.33°aN 78.06°aE / 30.33; 78.06

uttaraakhand (poorv naam uttaraanchal), uttar Bhaarat mein sthit ek raajya hai jiska nirmaan 9 November 2000 ko kai varshon ke aandolan ke pashchaat[3] Bhaarat ganaraajya ke sattaaisavein raajya ke roop mein kiya gaya tha. san 2000 se 2006 tak yeh uttaraanyachal ke naam se jaana jaata tha. January 2007 mein sthaaneeya logon ki bhaavanaaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue raajya ka aadhikaarik naam badalkar uttaraakhand kar diya gaya.[4] raajya ki seemaaeain uttar mein Tibet aur poorv mein Nepal se lagi hain. pashchim mein Himachal pradesh aur dakshin mein uttar pradesh iski seema se lage raajya hain. san 2000 mein apne gathan se poorv yeh uttar pradesh ka ek bhaag tha. paaramparik hindu granthon aur praacheen saahitya mein is kshetr ka ullekh uttaraakhand ke roop mein kiya gaya hai. hindi aur sanskrut mein uttaraakhand ka arth uttari kshetr ya bhaag hota hai. raajya mein hindu dharm ki pavitratam aur Bhaarat ki sabse badi nadiyon ganga aur yamuna ke udgam sthal kramash: gangotri aur yamunotri tatha inke taton par base vaidik sanskruti ke kai mahattvapoorn teerthasthaan hain.

deharaadoon, uttaraakhand ki antarim rajdhani hone ke saath is raajya ka sabse bada nagar hai. gairasain naamak ek chhote se kasbe ko iski bhaugolik sthiti ko dekhte hue bhavishya ki rajdhani ke roop mein prastaavit kiya gaya hai kintu vivaadon aur sansaadhanon ke abhaav ke chalte abhi bhi deharaadoon asthaai rajdhani bana hua hai.[5][6] raajya ka uchch nyaayaalaya naineetaal mein hai.

raajya sarkaar ne haal hi mein hastashilp aur hathakaragha udyogon ko badhaava dene ke liye kuchh pahal ki hain. saath hi badhte paryatan vyaapaar tatha uchch takaneeki vaale udyogon ko protsaahan dene ke liye aakarshak kar yojanaayein prastut ki hain. raajya mein kuchh vivaadaaspad kintu vruhat baaaindh pariyojanaaeain bhi hain jinki poore desh mein kai baar aalochanaaeain bhi ki jaati rahi hain, jinmein vishesh hai bhaageerathi-bheelaangana nadiyon par banane waali tihri baaaindh pariyojana. is pariyojana ki kalpana 1953 me ki gayi thi aur yeh antat: 2007 mein bankar taiyaar hua. uttaraakhand, chipko aandolan ke janmasthaan ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[7]

anukram

itihaas

yeh bhi padhein: uttaraakhand raajya aandolan, Rampur tiraaha goli kaand, shreenagar, gadhvaal ka itihaas,uttaraakhand mein svaadheenata sangraam

skand puraan mein himaalaya ko paaainch bhaugolik kshetron mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai:-

khandaa: panyach himaalayasya kathitaa: naipaalakoomaaainchanlau.
kedaaroऽth jaalandharoऽth roochir kaashmeer sanjnyaoऽntim:.

arthaat himaalaya kshetr mein Nepal, kurmaanchal (kumaaooain), kedaarakhand (gadhvaal), jaalandhar (Himachal pradesh) aur suramya Kashmir paaainch khand hai.[8]

संत नारायण ने शीर्ष पर गिरती गंगा का कार्टून चित्र

pauraanik granthon mein kurmaanchal kshetr maanasakhand ke naam se prasidv tha. pauraanik granthon mein uttari himaalaya mein siddh gandharv, yaksh, kinnar jaatiyon ki srushti aur is srushti ka raaja kuber bataaya gaya hain. kuber ki rajdhani alakaapuri (badreenaath se oopar) bataai jaati hai. puraanon ke anusaar raaja kuber ke raajya mein aashram mein rishi-muni tap va saadhana karte the. angrej itihaasakaaron ke anusaar hun, sakaas, naag, khash aadi jaatiyaaain bhi himaalaya kshetr mein nivaas karti thi. pauraanik granthon mein kedaar khand va maanas khand ke naam se is kshetr ka vyaapak ullekh hai. is kshetr ko Dave-bhoomi va tapobhoomi maana gaya hai.

maanas khand ka kurmaanchal va kumaaooain naam chand raajaaon ke shaasan kaal mein prachalit hua. kurmaanchal par chand raajaaon ka shaasan katyooriyon ke baad praarambh hokar san 1790 tak raha. san 1790 mein Nepal ki gorakha sena ne kumaaooain par aakraman kar kumaaooain raajya ko apne aadheen kar liya. gorakhaaon ka kumaaooain par san 1790 se 1815 tak shaasan raha. san 1815 mein angreinjo se antim baar paraast hone ke uparaant gorakha sena Nepal vaapas chali gayi kintu angrejon ne kumaaooain ka shaasan chand raajaaon ko na dekar East indiya company ke adheen kar diya. is prakaar kumaaooain par angrejo ka shaasan 1815 se aarambh hua.

sanyukt praant ka bhaag uttaraakhand, 1903

aitihaasik vivranon ke anusaar kedaar khand kai gadhon (kile) mein vibhkt tha. in gadhon ke alag-alag raaja the jinka apna-apna aadhiptya kshetr tha. itihaasakaaron ke anusaar painvaar vansh ke raaja ne in gadhon ko apne adheenakar ekeekrut gadhvaal raajya ki sthaapana ki aur shreenagar ko apni rajdhani banaaya. kedaar khand ka gadhvaal naam tabhi prachalit hua. san 1803 mein Nepal ki gorakha sena ne gadhvaal raajya par aakraman kar apne adheen kar liya. yeh aakraman lokajan mein gorakhaali ke naam se prasiddh hai. mahaaraaja gadhvaal ne Nepal ki gorakha sena ke adhiptya se raajya ko mukt karaane ke liye angrejo se sahaayata maangi. angrej sena ne Nepal ki gorakha sena ko deharaadoon ke sameep san 1815 mein antim roop se paraast kar diya. kintu gadhvaal ke tatkaaleen mahaaraaja dvaara yuddh vyaya ki nirdhaarit dhanaraashi ka bhugataan karne mein asamarthata vyakt karne ke kaaran angrejon ne sampoorn gadhvaal raajya raaja gadhvaal ko na saunp kar alakananda-mandaakini ke poorv ka bhaag East indiya company ke shaasan mein sammilit kar gadhvaal ke mahaaraaja ko keval tihri jile (vartamaan uttarakaashi sahit) ka bhoo-bhaag vaapas kiya. gadhvaal ke tatkaaleen mahaaraaja sudarshan shaah ne 28 December 1815 ko[9] tihri naam ke sthaan par jo bhaageerathi aur bhilangana nadiyon ke sangam par chhota sa gaaainv tha, apni rajdhani sthaapit ki.[10] kuchh varshon ke uparaant unke uttaraadhikaari mahaaraaja Narendra shaah ne odaathali naamak sthaan par narendranagar naam se doosari rajdhani sthaapit ki. san 1815 se deharaadoon va paudi gadhvaal (vartamaan chamoli jila aur rudraprayaag jile ka agastyamuni va ookheemath vikaas khand sahit) angrejo ke adheen va tihri gadhvaal mahaaraaja tihri ke adheen hua.[11][12][13]

bhaarateeya ganatantr mein tihri raajya ka vilay August 1949 mein hua aur tihri ko tatkaaleen sanyukt praant (u.pr.) ka ek jila ghoshit kiya gaya. 1962 ke Bhaarat-cheen yuddh ki prushth bhoomi mein seemaant kshetron ke vikaas ki drushti se san 1960 mein teen seemaant jile uttarakaashi, chamoli va pithauraagadh ka gathan kiya gaya. ek nae raajya ke rup mein uttar pradesh ke punargathan ke falasvarup (uttar pradesh punargathan adhiniyam, 2000) uttaraakhand ki sthaapana 9 November 2000 ko hui. isliye is din ko uttaraakhand mein sthaapana diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.

san 1969 tak deharaadoon ko chhodkar uttaraakhand ke sabhi jile kumaaooain mandal ke adheen the. san 1969 mein gadhvaal mandal ki sthaapana ki gayi jiska mukhyaalaya paudi banaaya gaya. san 1975 mein deharaadoon jile ko jo Meerut pramandal mein sammilit tha, gadhvaal mandal mein sammilit kar liya gaya. isse gadhavaal mandal mein jilon ki sankhya paaainch ho gayi. kumaaooain mandal mein naineetaal, almoda, pithauraagadh, teen jile sammilit the. san 1994 mein udhamasinh nagar aur san 1997 mein rudraprayaag, champaavat va baageshvar jilon ka gathan hone par uttaraakhand raajya gathan se poorv gadhvaal aur kumaaooain mandalon mein chh:-chh: jile sammilit the. uttaraakhand raajya mein haridvaar janapad ke sammilit kiye jaane ke pashchaat gadhvaal mandal mein saat aur kumaaooain mandal mein chh: jile sammilit hain. 1 January 2007 se raajya ka naam "uttaraanyachal" se badalkar "uttaraakhand" kar diya gaya hai.

bhoogol

nanda devi parvat, Bhaarat ki doosari sabse ooainchi choti

uttaraakhand ka kul bhaugolik kshetrafal 28° 43' u. se 31°aa27' u. aur rekhaansh 77°aa34' poo se 81°aa02' poo ke beech mein 53,483 varg kimi hai, jismein se 43,035 ki.mi.2 parvateeya hai aur 7,448 ki.mi.2 maidaani hai, tatha 34,651 ki.mi.2 bhoobhaag vanaachhaadit hai.[14] raajya ka adhikaansh uttari bhaag vruhadtar himaalaya shrrunkhala ka bhaag hai, jo ooainchi himaalayi chotiyon aur himnadiyon se dhaka hua hai, jabki nimn talahatiyaaain saghan vanon se dhaki hui hain jinka pehle angrej lakdi vyaapaariyon aur svatantrata ke baad van anubandhakon dvaara dohan kiya gaya. haal hi ke vaneekaran ke prayaason ke kaaran sthiti pratyaavartan karne mein safalta mili hai. himaalaya ke vishishth paaristhitik tantr badi sankhya mein pashuon (jaise bhadl, him teinduaa, teinduaa aur baagh), paundho aur durlabh jadi-bootiyon ka ghar hai. Bhaarat ki do sabse mahatvapoorn nadiyaaain ganga aur yamuna isi raajya mein janm leteen hain aur maidaani kshetron tak pahuainchate-2 maarg mein bahut se taalaabon, jheelon, himnadiyon ki pighli barf se jal grahan karti hain.

uttaraakhand, himaalaya shrrunkhala ki dakshini dhalaan par sthit hai aur yahaaain mausam aur vanaspati mein ooainchaai ke saath-2 bahut parivartan hota hai, jahaaain sabse ooainchaai par himnad se lekar nichle sthaanon par uposhnakatibandheeya van hain. sabse ooainche uthe sthal him aur pattharon se dhake hue hain. unase neeche, 5,000 se 3,000 meter tak ghaasabhoomi aur jhaadeebhoomi hai. samasheetoshn shankudhaari van, pashchim himaalayi upaalpaain shankudhar van, vruksharekha se kuchh neeche ugate hain. 3,000 se 2,600 meter ki ooainchaai par samasheetoshn pashchim himaalayi chaudi pattiyon vaale van hain jo 2,600 se 1,500 meter ki uainchaai par hain. 1,500 meter se neeche himaalayi uposhnakatibandheeya paain van hain. uchale ganga ke maidaanon mein nam patajhadi van hain aur sukhaane vaale taraai-duaar savaana aur ghaasabhoomi uttar pradesh se lagti hui nichli bhoomi ko dhake hue hai. ise sthaaneeya kshetron mein bhaabhar ke naam se jaana jaata hai. nichli bhoomi ke adhikaansh bhaag ko kheti ke liye saaf kar diya gaya hai.

Bhaarat ke nimnalikhit raashtreeya udyaan is raajya mein hain, jaise jim kaurbet raashtreeya udyaan (Bhaarat ka sabse puraana raashtreeya udyaan) raamanagar, naineetaal jile mein, foolon ki ghaati raashtreeya udyaan aur nanda devi raashtreeya udyaan, chamoli jile mein hain aur dono milkar yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal hain, raajaaji raashtreeya abhyaaranya haridvaar jile mein aur govind pashu vihaar aur gangotri raashtreeya udyaan uttarakaashi jile mein hain.

uttaraakhand ki nadiyaaain

rishikesh ke nikat himaalaya kshetr

is pradesh ki nadiyaaain bhaarateeya sanskruti mein sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn sthaan rakhati hain. uttaraakhand anek nadiyon ka udgam sthal hai. yahaaain ki nadiyaaain sinchaai va jal vidyut utpaadan ka pramukh sansaadhan hai. in nadiyon ke kinaare anek dhaarmik va saanskrutik kendra sthaapit hain. hinduon ki pavitra nadi ganga ka udgam sthal mukhya himaalaya ki dakshini shreniyaaain hain. ganga ka praarambh alakananda va bhaageerathi nadiyon se hota hai. alakananda ki sahaayak nadi dhauli, vishnu ganga tatha mandaakini hai. ganga nadi, bhaageerathi ke rup mein gaumukh sthaan se 25 ki॰mee॰ lambe gangotri himnad se niklati hai. bhaageerathi va alakananda Dave prayaag sangam karti hai jiske pashchaat vah ganga ke rup mein pahachaani jaati hai. yamuna nadi ka udgam kshetr bandarapooainchh ke pashchimi yamanotri himnad se hai. is nadi mein hons, giri va aasan mukhya sahaayak hain. Ram ganga ka udgam sthal takalaakot ke uttar pashchim mein maakacha chung himnad mein mil jaati hai. song nadi deharaadoon ke dakshin poorvi bhaag mein bahti hui veerabhadr ke paas ganga nadi mein mil jaati hai. inke alaava raajya mein kaali, raamaganga, kosi, gomati, tons, dhauli ganga, gaureeganga, pindar nayaar (poorv) pindar nayaar (pashchim) aadi pramukh nadiyaaain hain.[10]

himshikhr

himaalayi shrrunkhala ka uttaraakhandi shikhar

raajya ke pramukh himshikhron mein gaङagotri (6614 mi.), doonagiri (7066), bandarapooainchh (6315), kedaaranaath (6490), chaukhamba (7138), kaamet (7756), satopanth (7075), neelakanth (5696), nanda devi (7818), gori parvat (6250), haathi parvat (6727), nanda dhunti (6309), nanda kot (6861) Dave van (6853), maana (7273), mrugathani (6855), panchaachooli (6905), guni (6179), yoongataagat (6945) hain.[10]

himnad

raajya ke pramukh himnadon mein gangotri, yamunotri, pindar, khataligan, milm, jaulinkaang, sundar dhoonga ityaadi aate hain.[10]

jheelein

raajya ke pramukh taalon va jheelon mein gaureekund, roopakund, nandeekund, dooyodhi taal, jaraal taal, shahastra taal, maasar taal, naineetaal, bheemataal, saat taal, naukuchiya taal, sookha taal, shyaamala taal, surapa taal, garoodi taal, hareesh taal, lokham taal, paarvati taal, tadaag taal (kumaaooain kshetr) ityaadi aate hain.[10]

darre

uttaraachanl ke pramukh darron mein baraas- 5365 mi., (uttarakaashi), maana - 6608 mi.(chamoli), noti-5300mi. (chamoli), bolhaadhura- 5353mi., (pithauraagad), kurangi-vurangi-5564 mi.(pithauraagad), lovepura-5564 mi. (pithauraagad), lamapyaadhura-5553 mi. (pithauraagadh), lipulesh-5129 mi. (pithauraagad), untaabura, thaangala, trelapaas, malaareepaas, raalamapaas, sog chog la pulig la, tunajunala, maraheela, chireechun darra aate hain.[10]

mausam

uttaraakhand ka mausam do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai: parvateeya aur kam parvateeya ya samataleeya. uttar aur uttarapoorv mein mausam himaalayi uchch bhoomiyon ka prateekaatmak hai, jahaaain par maunasoon ka varsh par bahut prabhaav hai. raajya mein vaarshik ausat varsha varsh 2008 ke aankadon ke anusaar 1606 mi.mi. hui thi. adhiktam taapamaan pantanagar mein 40.2 degree se. (2008) ankit evam nyoonatam taapamaan -5.4 degree se. mukteshvar mein ankit hai.[14]

yeh bhi dekhein: uttaraakhand ke mausam ki jaankaari

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

uttaraakhand sarkaar ki vartamaan raajyapaal hai [shri ajeej kuraishi] evam mukhyamantri hain hareesh Singh raavat. unhein 10 sitmbar, 2011 ko dau॰ ramesh pokhariyaal ko hataakar naya mukhyamantri banaaya gaya tha.[15] raajya mein antim chunaav 21 fravari, 2007 ko hue the. un chunaavon mein bhaarateeya janta party 70-sadasyeeya uttaraakhand vidhaanasabha mein 34 seaton se saath sabse bade dal ke roop mein ubhari thi. bahumat se ek seat ki kami ko poora karne ke liye bhaajapa ko uttaraakhand kraanti dal aur teen nirdaliyon ka samarthan lena pada. bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress aadhikaarik vipakshi dal hai, jiske paas 21 seete hain.

mukhyamantri

raajya ki sthaapana se ab tak yahaaain chhah mukhyamantri hue hai, inmein se vijay bahuguna is baar baar mukhyamantri niyukt hue hain:

raajyapaal

raajya sthaapana se lekar ab tak yahaaain paanch raajyapaal hue hai:

mandal aur jile

janasaankhyiki

2011 ki janaganana ke anusaar, uttaraakhand ki janasankhya 1,01,16,752 hai[18] 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, uttaraakhand ki janasankhya 84,89,349 thi, jismein 43,25,924 purush aur 91,63,825 striyaaain theen. ismein sarvaadhik janasankhya rajdhani deharaadoon ki 5,30,263 hai.[19] 2011 ki janaganana tak janasankhya ka 1 karod tak ho jaane ka anumaan hai. maidaani kshetron ke jile parvateeya jilon ki apeksha adhik janasankhya ghanatv vaale hain. raajya ke maatr chaar sarvaadhik janasankhya vaale jilon mein raajya ki aadhe se adhik janasankhya nivaas karti hain. jilon mein janasankhya ka aakaar 2 lakh se lekar adhiktam 14 lakh tak hai. raajya ki dashakavaar vruddhi dar 1991-2001 mein 19.2 pratishat rahi. uttaraakhand ke mool nivaasiyon ko kumaaooainni ya gadhvaali kaha jaata hai jo pradesh ke do mandalon kumaaooain aur gadhvaal mein rahate hain. ek anya shreni hain gujjar, jo ek prakaar ke charavaahe hain aur dakshin-pashchimi taraai kshetr mein rahate hain.

madhya pahaadi ki do boliyaaain kumaaooainni aur gadhvaali, kramash: kumaaooain aur gadhvaal mein boli jaati hain. jaunasaari aur bhotiya do anya boliyaaain, janajaati samudaayon dvaara kramash: pashchim aur uttar mein boli jaati hain. lekin hindi poore pradesh mein boli aur samajhi jaati hai aur nagareeya janasankhya adhiktar hindi hi bolti hai.

uttaraakhand mein dhaarmik samooh
dhaarmik samooh pratishat[20]
hindu
85.00%
musalmaan
11.92%
sikh
2.49%
isaai
0.32%
bauddh
0.15%
jain
0.11%
anya
0.01%

shesh Bhaarat ke samaan hi uttaraakhand mein hindu bahumat mein hain aur kul janasankhya ka 85% hain, iske baad musalmaan 12%, sikh 2.5% aur anya dharmaavalambi 0.5% hain. yahaaain lingaanupaat prati 1000 purushon par 964 aur saaksharata dar 72.28%[21] hai. raajya ke bade nagar hain deharaadoon (5,30,263), haridvaar (2,20,767), haldvaani (1,58,896), rudki (1,15,278) aur rudrapur (88,720). raajya sarkaar dvaara 15,620 graamon aur 81 nagareeya kshetron ki pehchaan ki gayi hai.

kumaaooain aur gadhvaal ke itihaasakaaron ka kehna hai ki aarambh mein yahaaain keval teen jaatiyaaain thi rajput, braahman aur shilpkaar. raajapooton ka mukhya vyavasaaya jmeedaari aur kaanoon-vyastha banaae rakhana tha. braahmanon ka mukhya vyavasaaya tha mandiron aur dhaarmik avsaron par dhaarmik anushthaanon ko karaana. shilpkaar mukhyat: raajapooton ke liye kaam kiya karte the aur hathashilpi mein daksh the. raajapooton dvaara do upanaamon raavat aur negi ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

pramukh nagar

pramukh nagar aur janasankhya

Dehradun ghantaghar.jpg
deharaadoon
Haridwar Aerial view.jpg
haridvaar

# nagar jila janasankhya # nagar jila janasankhya

View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha, 1895.jpg
almoda
Kotdwar Ghat (Hills), Uttarakhand, 1784-94.jpg
kotadvaar

1 deharaadoon deharaadoon jila 4,47,808 12 almoda almoda jila 30,613
2 haridvaar haridvaar jila 1,75,010 13 kichha udhamasinhanagar jila 30,517
3 haldvaani naineetaal jila 1,29,140 14 masoori deharaadoon jila 26,069
4 rudki haridvaar jila 97,064 15 kotadvaar paudi jila 25,400
5 kaasheepur udhamasinhanagar jila 92,978 16 paudi paudi jila 24,742
6 rudrapur udhamasinhanagar jila 88,720 17 shreenagar paudi jila 19,861
7 rishikesh deharaadoon jila 59,671 18 gopeshvar chamoli jila 19,855
8 raamanagar naineetaal jila 47,099 19 raaneekhet almoda jila 19,049
9 pithauraagadh pithauraagadh jila 41,157 20 khateema udhamasinhanagar jila 14,378
10 jasapur udhamasinhanagar jila 39,048 21 josheemath chamoli jila 13,202
11 naineetaal naineetaal jila 38,559 22 baageshvar baageshvar jila 7,803
janasankhya 2001 ki janaganana ke aadhaar par[22]

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arthavyavastha

---

uttaraakhand ka sakal ghareloo utpaad varsh 2004 ke liye vartamaan moolyon ke aadhaar par anumaanit 280.32 arab rupae (6 arab dollar) tha. uttar pradesh se alag hokar bana yeh raajya, puraane uttar pradesh ke kul utpaadan ka 8% utpann karta hai. 2003 ki audyogik neeti ke kaaran, jismein yahaaain nivesh karne vaale niveshakon ko kar raahat di gayi hai, yahaaain pooainji nivesh mein ullekhaneeya vruddhi hui hai. sidkul yaani state infraastrakchar end indastriyl divelapamant corporation of uttaraakhand li. ne uttaraakhand raajya ke audyogik vikaas ke liye raajya ke dakshini chhor par saat audyogik bhoosanpattiyon ki sthaapana ki hai[23], jabki oochale sthaanon par darjanon panabijli baaaindhon ka nirmaan chal raha hai. fir bhi, pahaadi kshetron ka vikaas abhi bhi ek chunauti bana hua hai kyonki logon ka pahaadi kshetron se maidaani kshetron ki or palaayan jaari hai.

uttaraakhand mein choona patthar, raak faasfet, dolomaait, maignesaait, taanba, grefaait, jipsam aadi ke bhandaar hain. raajya mein 41,216 laghu audyogik ikaaiya sthaapit hain, jinmein lagbhag 305.58 karod ki parisanpatti ka nivesh hua hai aur 63,599 logon ko rojagaar praapt hai. iske atirikt 191 bhaari udyog sthaapit hain, jinmein 2,694.66 karod rupayon ka nivesh hua hai. 1,802 udyogon mein 5 lakh logon ko kaarya mila hua hai. varsh 2003 mein ek nayi audyogik neeti banaayi gayi jiske antargatt niveshakon ko kar mein raahat di gayi thi, jiske kaaran raajya mein poonji nivesh ki ek lahar daud gayi.

raajya ki arth-vyavastha mukhyat: krushi aur sambandhit udyogon par aadhaarit hai. uttaraakhand ki lagbhag 90% janasankhya krushi par nirbhar hai. raajya mein kul kheti yogya kshetr 7,84,117 hekteyar (7,841 kimee²) hai. iske alaava raajya mein bahti nadiyon ke baahulya ke kaaran panavidyut pariyojanaaon ka bhi achha yogadaan hai. raajya mein bahut si panavidyut pariyojanaaen hain jink raajya ke lagbhag kul 5,91,418 hekteyar krushi bhoomi mein sinchaai mein bhi yogadaan hai. raajya mein panabijli utpaadan ki bharpoor kshamata hai. yamuna, bhaageerathi, bheelaangana, alakananda, mandaakini, sarayoo, Gauri, kosi aur kaali nadiyon par anek panabijli sanyantr lage hue hain, jinse bijli ka utpaadan ho raha hai. raajya ke 15,667 gaanvon mein se 14,447 (lagbhag 92.22%) gaanvon mein bijli hai. iske alaava udyog ka ek bada bhaag van sanpada par aadhaarit hain. raajya mein kul 54,047 hastashilp udyog kriyaasheel hain.[24]

parivhan

uttaraakhand rel, vaayu aur sadak maargon se achhe se juda hua hai. uttaraakhand mein pakki sadakon ki kul lanbaai 21,490 kilometer hai. lok nirmaan vibhaag dvaara nirmit sadkon ki lanbaai 17,772 ki॰mee॰ aur sthaaneeya nikaayon dvaara banaai gayi sadkon ki lanbaai 3,925 ki॰mee॰ hain.

jauli graant (deharaadoon) aur pantanagar (oodhamasinh nagar) mein havaai pattiyaan hain. naini-saini (pithauraagadh), gauchar (chamoli) aur chinyaalisaur (uttarakaashi) mein havaai pattiyon ko banaane ka kaarya nirmaanaadheen hai. 'pavanahans li.' ne 'rudra prayaag' se 'kedaaranaath' tak teerth yaatriyon ke liye helicopter ki seva aarambh ki hai.

havaai adde

raajya ke kuchh havaai kshetr hain:

  • jauleegraant havaai adda (deharaadoon): jauleegraant havaai adda, deharaadoon havaai adde ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. yeh deharaadoon se 25 kimi ki doori par poorvi disha mein himaalaya ki talahatiyon mein basa hua hai. bade vimaanon ko utaarane ke liye iska haal hi mein vistaar kiya gaya hai. pehle yahaaain keval chhote vimaan hi utar sakte the lekin ab eyarabas e320 aur Boeing 737 bhi yahaaain utar sakte hain.[25]
  • chakaraata vaayusena tal: chakaraata vaayusena tal chakaraata mein sthit hai, jo deharaadoon jile ka ek chhaavani kasba hai. yeh tons aur yamuna nadiyon ke madhya, samudra tal se 1,650 se 1,950 meter ki oonchaai par sthit hai.
  • pantanagar havaai adda (naini saini, pantanagar)
  • uttarakaashi
  • gochar (chamoli)
  • agastyamuni (heliport) (rudraprayaag)
  • pithauraagadh

railway station

haridvaar railway station ka pravesh

raajya ke railway station hain:

bas adde

raajya ke pramukh bas adde hain:

  • deharaadoon
  • haridvaar
  • haldvaani
  • rudki
  • raamanagar
  • kotadvaar

paryatan

chhota chaar dhaam

Kedarnathji-mandir.JPGBadrinathji temple.JPGGangotri temple.jpgYamunotri temple and ashram.jpg

kedaaranaathbadreenaath
gangotriyamunotri

furasati, saahasik aur dhaarmik paryatan uttaraakhand ki arthavyastha mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain, jaise jim kaurbet raashtreeya udyaan aur baagh sanrakshan-kshetr aur naineetaal, almoda, kasauni, bheemataal, raaneekhet aur masoori jaise nikat ke pahaadi paryatan sthal jo Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik padhaare jaane vaale paryatan sthalon mein hain. parvataarohiyon ke liye raajya mein kai chotiyaaain hain, jinmein se nanda devi, sabse ooainchi choti hai aur 1982 se abaadhya hai. anya raashteeya aashcharya hain foolon ki ghaati, jo nanda devi ke saath milkar yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal hai.

uttaraakhand mein, jise "devabhoomi" bhi kaha jaata hai, hindu dharm ke kuchh sabse pavitra teerthasthaan hai aur hajaar varshon se bhi adhik samay se teerthayaatri moksh aur paap shuddhikran ki khoj mein yahaaain aa rahe hain. gangotri aur yamunotri, ko kramash: ganga aur yamuna nadiyon ke udagm sthal hain, kedaaranaath (Bhagwan Shiv ko samarpit) aur badreenaath (Bhagwan vishnu ko samarpit) ke saath milkar uttaraakhand ke chhota chaar dhaam banaate hain, jo hindu dharm ke pavitratam paripth mein se ek hai. haridvaar ke nikat sthit rishikesh Bhaarat mein yog k ek pramukh sthal hai aur jo haridvaar ke saath milkar ek pavitra hindu teerth sthal hai.

haridvaar mein sandhya aarti ke samay har ki paudi ka ek drushya.

haridvaar mein prati baarah varshon mein kumbh mele ka aayojan kiya jaata hai jismein desh-videsh se aae karodo shraddhaaloo bhaag lete hain. raajya mein mandiron aur teerthasthaanon ki bahutaayat hai, jo sthaaneeya devataaon ya shivji ya durgaaji ke avataaron ko samarpit hain aur jinka sandarbh hindu dharmagranthon aur gaathaaon mein milta hai. in mandiron ka vaastushilp sthaaneeya prateekaatmak hai aur shesh Bhaarat se thoda bhinn hai. jaageshvar mein sthit praacheen mandir (devadaar vrukshon se ghira hua 124 mandiron ka praanang) etihaasik roop se apni vaastushilp vishishtata ke kaaran sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn hain. tathaapi, uttaraakhand keval hinduon ke liye hi teerthaatan sthal naheen hai. himaalaya ki god mein sthit hemakund saahib, sikhon ka teerth sthal hai. mindroling math aur uske bauddh stoop se yahaaain tibbati bauddh dharm ki bhi upasthiti hai.


paryatan sthal

uttaraakhand mein bahut se paryatan sthal hai jahaaain par Bhaarat hi naheen balki poori duniya se paryatak aate hain, jaise naineetaal aur masoori. raajya ke pramukh paryatan sthal hain:

shiksha

uttaraakhand ke shaikshanik sansthaan Bhaarat aur vishvabhar mein ek mahatvapoorn sthaan rakhate hain. ye Asia ke sabse kuchh sabse puraane abhiyaantriki sansthaanon ka gruhasthaan raha hai, jaise rudki ka bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan (poorv rudki vishvavidyaalaya) aur pantanagar ka govind ballabh pant krushi evain praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya. inke alaava vishesh mahatva ke anya sansthaanon mein, deharaadoon sthit bhaarateeya sainya academy, ikfaai vishvavidyaalaya, bhaarateeya vaaniki sansthaan; paudi sthit govind ballabh pant abhiyaantriki mahaavidyaalaya aur dvaaraahaat sthit kumaaooain abhiyaantriki mahaavidyaalaya bhi hain.

in saarvajanik sansthaanon ke alaava uttaraakhand mein bahut se niji sansthaan bhi hain, jaise graafik era sansthaan, deharaadoon praudyogiki sansthaan, bhaarateeya air haustes academy ityaadi.

uttaraakhand bahut se jaane-maane dini aur boarding vidyaalayon ka ghar bhi hai jaise doon vidyaalaya (deharaadoon) sent josaf college, (naineetaal), velham girls school (deharaadoon), velaham byauj school (deharaadoon), sent Thomas college (deharaadoon), sent josaf academy (deharaadoon), vudastauk school (masoori), Birla vidya niketan (naineetaal), bhovaali ke nikat sainik school ghodaakhaal, raashtreeya bhaarateeya sainya mahaavidyaalaya (deharaadoon), the asian school (deharaadoon), the heritaij school (deharaadoon), ji di Birla maimoriyl school (raaneekhet), selaakui world school (deharaadoon), vedaaranbh mauntesari school (deharaadoon) aur sheravud college (naineetaal). bahut se vidushakon ne in vidyaalayon se shiksha grahan ki jinmein bahut se bhootapoorv pradhaanamantri aur abhineta ityaadi bhi hain.

haal hi ke varshon mein bahut se niji sansthaan bhi yahaaain khule hain jinke kaaran uttaraakhand takaneeki, prabandhan aur adhyaapan-shiksha ke ek pramukh kendra ke roop mein ubhara hai. kuchh ullekhaneeya sansthaan hain deharaadoon praudyogiki sansthaan (deharaadoon), amrapaali abhiyaantriki evain praudyogiki sansthaan (haldvaani), sarasvati prabandhan evain praudyogiki sansthaan (rudrapur) aur paal prabandhan evain praudyogiki sansthaan (haldvaani).

etihaasik roop se yeh maana jaata hai ki uttaraakhand vah bhoomi hai jahaaain par shaastron aur vedon ki rachana ki gayi thi aur mahaakaavya, mahaabhaarat likha gaya tha. rishikesh ko vyaapak roop se vishv ki yog rajdhani maana jaata hai.

vishvavidyaalaya

kshetreeya bhaavanaaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue jo baad mein uttaraakhand raajya ke roop mein parinit hua, gadhvaal aur kumaaooain vishvavidyaalaya 1973 mein sthaapit kiye gaye the. uttaraakhand ke sarvaadhik prasiddh vishvavidyaalaya hain:

naam prakaar sthiti
bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan rudki kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya rudki
akhil bhaarateeya aayurvigyaan sansthaan 2012 se kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya rishikesh
bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan 2012 se kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya kaasheepur
govind ballabh pant krushi evain praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya raajya vishvavidyaalaya pantanagar
hemavati nandan bahuguna gadhvaal vishvavidyaalaya kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya shreenagar va paudi
kumaaooain vishvavidyaalaya raajya vishvavidyaalaya naineetaal aur almoda
uttaraakhand praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya raajya vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
doon vishvavidyaalaya raajya vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
petrolium aur oorja shiksha vishvavidyaalaya niji vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
himgiri nabh vishvavidyaalaya niji vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
bhaarateeya chaartard vitteeya vishleshak sansthaan (aaiseeefeaai) niji vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
bhaarateeya vaaniki sansthaan deemd vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
himaalayan Institute of hauspitl trast deemd vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
graafik era vishvavidyaalaya deemd vishvavidyaalaya deharaadoon
gurukul kaangadi vishvavidyaalaya deemd vishvavidyaalaya haridvaar
patanyajali yogapeeth vishvavidyaalaya niji vishvavidyaalaya haridvaar
Dave sanskruti vishvavidyaalaya niji vishvavidyaalaya haridvaar
uttaraakhand mukt vishvavidyaalaya raajya vishvavidyaalaya haldvaani

sanskruti

rahan-sahan

uttaraakhand ek pahaadi pradesh hai. yahaaain thand bahut hoti hai isliye yahaaain logon ke makaan pakke hote hain. deevaarein pattharon ki hoti hai. puraane gharon ke oopar se patthar bichhaae jaate hain. vartamaan mein log seement ka upayog karne lag gaye hai. adhiktar gharon mein raat ko roti tatha din mein bhaat (chaaval) khaane ka prachalan hai. lagbhag har maheene koi na koi tyohaar manaaya jaata hai. tyohaar ke bahaane adhiktar gharon mein samay-samay par pakavaan bante hain. sthaaneeya star par ugaai jaane waali gahat, rains, bhatt aadi daalon ka prayog hota hai. praacheen samay mein manduva va jhungora sthaaneeya mota anaaj hota tha. ab inka utpaadan bahut kam hota hai. ab log baajaar se gehoon va chaaval khareedte hain. krushi ke saath pashupaalan lagbhag sabhi gharon mein hota hai. ghar mein utpaadit anaaj kuchh hi maheenon ke liye paryaapt hota hai. kasbon ke sameep ke log doodh ka vyavasaaya bhi karte hain. pahaad ke log bahut parishrami hote hai. pahaadon ko kaat-kaatkar seedheedaar khet banaane ka kaam inke parishram ko pradarshit bhi karta hai. pahaad mein adhiktar shramik bhi padhe-likhe hai, chaahe kam hi padhe hon. is kaaran is raajya ki saaksharata dar bhi raashtreeya ausat se kaheen adhik hai.

tyohaar

shesh Bhaarat ke samaan hi uttaraakhand mein poore varshabhar utsav manaae jaate hain. Bhaarat ke pramukh utsavon jaise deepaavali, holi, dashahara ityaadi ke atirikt yahaaain ke kuchh sthaaneeya tyohaar hain[27]:

  • deveedhura mela (champaavat)
  • poornaagiri mela (champaavat)
  • nanda devi mela (alamoda)
  • gauchar mela (chamoli)
  • vaishaakhi (uttarakaashi)
  • maagh mela (uttarakaashi)
  • uttaraayani mela (baageshvar)
  • vishu mela (jaunasaar baavar)
  • harela (kumaaooain)
  • ganga dashahara
  • nanda devi raajajaat yaatra jo har baarahavein varsh hoti hai

khaanapaan

inhein bhi dekhein: pahaadi khaana evam bhaarateeya khaana

uttaraakhandi khaanapaan ka arth raajya ke donon mandalon, kumaaooain aur gadhvaal, ke khaanapaan se hai. paaramparik uttaraakhandi khaanapaan bahut paushtik aur banaane mein saral hota hai. prayukt hone waali saamagri sugamata se kisi bhi sthaaneeya bhaarateeya kiraana dukaan mein mil jaati hai.

yahaaain ke kuchh vishisht khaanapaan hai[28]:

  • aaloo tamaatar ka jhol
  • chainsoo
  • jhoi
  • kaapiloo
  • manndue ki roti
  • peenaaloo ki sabji
  • bathue ka paraaaintha
  • baal mithaai
  • sisaunn ka saag
  • gauhot ki daal

veshabhoosha

paaramparik roop se uttaraakhand ki mahilaayein ghaaghara tatha aaaingadi, tatha puroosh choodeedaar pajaama va kurta pahanate the. ab inka sthaan peteekot, blaauj va saadi ne le liya hai. jaadon (sardiyon) mein ooni kapadon ka upayog hota hai. vivaah aadi shubh kaaryo ke avsar par kai kshetron mein abhi bhi saneel ka ghaaghara pahanane ki parampara hai. gale mein galoband, char‌aayo, jai maala, naak mein nath, kaanon mein karnafool, kundal pahanane ki parampara hai. sir mein sheeshafool, haathon mein sone ya chaaaindi ke paunji tatha pairon mein bichhue, paayajeb, paunta pahane jaate hain. ghar parivaar ke samaarohon mein hi aabhooshan pahanane ki parampara hai. vivaahit aurat ki pehchaan gale mein chareoo pahanane se hoti hai. vivaah ityaadi shubh avsaron par pichhauda pahanane ka bhi yahaaain chalan aam hai.[29]

lok kalaaeain

lok kala ki drushti se uttaraakhand bahut samruddh hai. ghar ki sajaavat mein hi lok kala sabse pehle dekhne ko milti hai. dashahara, deepaavali, naamakaran, janeoo aadi shubh avsaron par mahilaaeain ghar mein ainpan (alpana) banaati hai. iske liye ghar, ongan ya seedhiyon ko geroo se leepa jaata hai. chaaval ko bhigokar use peesa jaata hai. uske lep se aakarshak chitr banaae jaate hain. vibhinn avsaron par naamakaran chauki, soorya chauki, snaan chauki, janmadin chauki, yajnyaopaveet chauki, vivaah chauki, dhoomilardhya chauki, var chauki, aachaarya chauki, ashtadal kamal, svaastik peeth, vishnu peeth, Shiv peeth, Shiv shakti peeth, sarasvati peeth aadi paramparaagat rup se gaaainv ki mahilaaeain swayam banaati hai. inka kaheen prashikshan naheen diya jaata hai. harele aadi parvon par mitti ke dikaare banaae jaate hai. ye dikaare Bhagwan ke prateek maane jaate hai. inki pooja ki jaati hai. kuchh log mitti ki achhi-achhi moortiyaaain (dikaare) bana lete hain. yahaaain ke gharon ko banaate samay bhi lok kala pradarshit hoti hai. puraane samay ke gharon ke darvaajon va khidkiyon ko lakdi ki sajaavat ke saath banaaya jaata raha hai. darvaajon ke chaukhat par devi-devataaon, haathi, sher, mor aadi ke chitr nakkaashi karke banaae jaate hai. puraane samay ke bane gharon ki chhat par chidiyon ke ghonsalein banaane ke liye bhi sthaan chhoda jaata tha. nakkaashi va chitrakaari paaramparik roop se aaj bhi hoti hai. ismein samay kaafi lagta hai. vaishveekaran ke daur mein aadhunikta ne puraani kala ko alvida kehna praarambh kar diya. almoda sahit kai sthaanon mein aaj bhi kaashth kala dekhne ko milti hai. uttaraakhand ke praacheen mandiron, naulon mein pattharon ko taraash kar (kaatkar) vibhinn devi-devataaon ke chitr banaae gaye hai. praacheen gufaaon tatha udyaaron mein bhi shail chitr dekhne ko milte hain.[30]

uttaraakhand ki lok dhunein bhi anya pradeshon se bhinn hai. yahaaain ke baadya yantron mein nagaada, dhol, damuaa, ranasing, bheri, hudka, been, daunra, kurooli, alagaaja pramukh hai. dhol-damuaa tatha been baaja vishisht vaadyayantr hain jinka prayog aamtaur par har aayojan mein kiya jaata hai. yahaaain ke lok geeton mein nyoli, jod, jhoda, chhapeli, bair va faag pramukh hote hain. in geeton ki rachana aam janta dvaara ki jaati hai. isliye inka koi ek lekhak naheen hota hai. yahaan prachalit lok kathaaeain bhi sthaaneeya parivesh par aadhaarit hai. lok kathaaon mein lok vishvaason ka chitran, lok jeevan ke du:kh dard ka samaavesh hota hai. bhaarateeya saahitya mein lok saahitya sarvamaanya hai. lok saahitya maukhik saahitya hota hai. is prakaar ka maukhik saahitya uttaraakhand mein lok gaatha ke roop mein kaafi hai. praacheen samay mein manoranjan ke saadhan naheen the. lokagaayak raat bhar graamavaasiyon ko lok gaathaaen sunaate the. ismein maalasaai, ramail, jaagar aadi prachalit hai. abhi gaanvon mein raatri mein lagne vaale jaagar mein lok gaathaaen sunane ko milti hai. yahaan ke lok saahitya mein lokoktiyaaain, muhaavare tatha paheliyaaain (aann) aaj bhi prachalan mein hai. uttaraakhand ka chholiya nrutya kaafi prasiddh hai. is nrutya mein nrutak labi-lambi talavaarein va gende ki khaal se bani dhaal liye yuddh karte hai. yeh yuddh nagaade ki chot va ranasinh ke saath hota hai. isse lagta hai yeh raajaaon ke aitihaasik yuddh ka prateek hai. kuchh kshetron mein chholiya nrutya dhol ke saath shrungaarik roop se hota hai. chholiya nrutya mein puroosh bhaageedaari hoti hai. kumaaooain tatha gadhvaal mein jhumaila tatha jhoda nrutya hota hai. jhauda nrutya mein mahilaaeain va puroosh bahut bade samooh mein gol ghere mein haath pakadkar gaate hue nrutya karte hai. vibhinn anchalon mein jhodein mein laya va taal mein antar dekhne ko milta hai. nrutyon mein sarp nrutya, paandav nrutya, jaunasaari, chaaainchari bhi pramukh hai.[31]

uttaraakhandi cinema

teri saun 2003 mein bana ek uttaraakhandi chalachitr hai. yeh chalachitr uttaraakhand aandolan par aadhaarit hai.

uttaraakhandi cinema aur iske naatya poorvavrutt us jaagruti ke parinaam hain jo svatantrata ke baad aarambh hui thi aur jiska udbhav 60, 70 aur 80 ke dashakon mein hua aur antat: 1990 ke dashak mein visfotak roop se udaya hua. samast pahaadon aur deharaadoon, shreenagar, almoda aur naineetaal mein ek aandolan ka ubhaar hua jiske sootradhaar “akalaakaar, kavi, gaayak aur abhineta the jinhonein raajya ki saanskrutik aur kalaatmak roopon ka upayog raajya ke sangharsh ko bal dene ke liye kiya.”

graamon ki lok-sanskruti aur sthaaneeya logon ki saamaajik-aarthik pareshaaniyon ke samaayojan ka nirntar chalachitron mein pradarshan hota raha jiska aarambh paraashar gaur ke 1983 ke chalachitr "jagavaal" se hua jo 2003 mein "teri saun" ke prathamopradarshan (Premier) tak hua.[32] vishesh roop se teri saun, uttaraakhand aandolan ke sangharsh par aadhaarit thi. is chalachitr mein 1994 ki us dukhadaai ghatna ka chitran kiya gaya hai jisne raajya aandolan ki agni mein ghi ka kaam kiya.

varsh 2008 mein, uttaraakhand ke kalaatmak samudaaya dvaara uttaraakhand cinema ki 25veen varshagaanth manaai gayi.

uttaraakhand teevr-tathya

uttaraakhand ke raajya prateek
sthaapana diwas 9 November 2000 उत्तराखण्ड राज्य चिह्न.jpg
raajya pashu kastoori mrug Moschustier.jpg
raajya pakshi monaal Lophophorus impejanus (Jardin Acclimatation).jpg
raajya vruksh buraans Rhododendron-by-eiffel-public-domain-20040617.jpg
raajya pushp brahm kamal Saussurea pygmaea.jpg

raajanaitik tathya

  • prashaasanik rajdhani: deharaadoon
  • prastaavit rajdhani: gairasain
  • uchch nyaayaalaya: naineetaal
  • desh mein sthiti: uttar Bhaarat
  • mukhyamantri: hareesh raavat
  • raajyapaal: ke ke paal
  • mandal sankhya: do (kumaaooain aur gadhvaal)
  • kul jile: terah
  • vidhaanasabha seatein: sattar
  • Loksabha seatein: paaainch

dhaarmik tathya

  • uttaraakhand ko devabhoomi ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. iska kaaran hai pauraanik kaal mein is kshetr mein hue vibhinn devi-devataaon dvaara liye avataar. yahaaain triyugi-Narayan naamak sthaan par mahaadev ne sati paarvati se vivaah kiya tha.
  • mansaar naamak sthaan par seeta maata dharati mein dharati mein samaai thi. yeh sthaan uttaraakhand ke paudi jile mein hai aur yahaaain prativrsh ek mela bhi lagta hai.
  • kamaleshvar/siddheshvar mandir shreenagar ka sarvaadhik poojit mandir hai. kaha jaata hai ki jab devata asuron se yuddh mein paraast hone lage to Bhagwan vishnu ko Bhagwan shankar se isi sthaan par sudarshan chakr mila tha.
  • sati anasooiya ne uttaraakhand mein hi brahm, vishnu, evain mahesh ko baalak banaaya tha.
  • doivaala Bhagwan dattaatreya ke 2 shishyon ki nivaas bhoomi hai. yahi naheen, Bhagwan Ram ke chhote bhaai Lakshman ne bhi yaheen praayashchit kiya tha.
uttaraakhand mein chaukori se himaalaya shrrunkhala ka vihangam drushya

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. State wise Population of India as per 2011 Census (angreji)
  2. "sanskrut ij sekand ofishiyl laingvej in uttaraakhand". http://www.hindustantimes.com/Sanskrit-is-second-official-language-in-Uttarakhand/Article1-499467.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2011-04-20. (angreji)
  3. uttaraakhand raajya aandolan (angreji)
  4. uttaraanyachal bana uttaraakhand (angreji)
  5. nishank sarkaar gairasainn mein banaaegi sachivaalaya? naineetaal samaachaar. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2010.
  6. rajdhani bane to kahaan, gairasainn aur deharaadoon ke beech hod navabhaarat times. abhigman 19 July 2010.
  7. the chipko moovament (angreji)
  8. meraapahaad.com. ऍm ऍs Mehta. 6 October 2009
  9. uttaraakhand ka itihaas. jaya uttaraakhand. 19 December 2007. uttaraakhandi
  10. a aa i E u oo uttaraakhand ka itihaas evam parichay. ghughuti. 24 August 2008. dhaanasinh
  11. kaise bana uttaraanchal raajya. NCR news. 11 December 2009. ankur vats
  12. tehari gadhvaal ka sankship‍aat itihaas. uttaraanchal-uttaraakhand. 22 fravari 2006. tarun.
  13. uttaraakhand : kuchh tathya itihaas ke jharokhe se.... yangauttaraakhand kamyuniti- all abaaut uttaraakhand
  14. a aa uttaraakhand raajya ka aadhikaarik jaalasthal- raajya ki ek jhalak
  15. uttaraakhand: nishank ka isteefa, khandoori nae mukhyamantri BBC hindi
  16. a aa aadhikaarik jaalasthal: uttaraakhand sarkaar
  17. "janaganana janasankhya" (peedeeef). Bhaarat ki janaganana. vitt mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/chapt2007/tab97.pdf. abhigman tithi: 18-12-2008.
  18. (angreji) Size, growth rate, and distribution of population.pdf prushth 3; abhigman 3 April 2011
  19. uttaraakhand- chikitsa svaasthya evam parivaar kalyaan vibhaag
  20. 2001 ki janaganana ke aadhaar par
  21. uttaraakhand faikts (angreji)
  22. bhaarateeya nagaron aur kasbon ki janasankhya
  23. sidkul ka aadhikaarik jaalasthal
  24. .com/3/uttarakhand.htm uttaraakhand- indiyaanetajon par
  25. uttaraakhand faikts (angreji)
  26. deharaadoon railway station (angreji)
  27. uttaraakhand ke tyohaar bhaarataonalaain.com (angreji)
  28. uttaraakhandi khaanapaan
  29. rangvaali pichhauda : uttaraakhand ka paaramparik paridhaan (angreji)
  30. harela: laag hariyaav, laag dasain, laag bagvaal, ji raye, jaagi raye..... new-aaidiyaaj. bruhaspativaar, 15 July 2010
  31. utaraanchal raajya : ek parichay - dikaare. dau॰ Kailash Kumar mishr.
  32. uttaraakhandi cinema ke baare mein (angreji)

vistrut pathan

  • thapaliyaal rekha. 1991 praacheen madhya himaalaya kumaaooain ka itihaas : saanskrutik bhoogol : nruvansheeya adhyaya. nai Delhi; naurdan book sentar.
  • paande badreedatt 1990 kumaaooain ka itihaas. almoda; shyaam prakaashan shri almoda book dipo.
  • Joshi maheshvar prasaad 1994 utaraanyachal himaalaya samaaj, sanskruti, itihaas evam puraatv. almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • baaladiye, ke. S. 1998 kumaaooain (land end pyoopil). naineetaal; jnyaaanodaya prakaashan.
  • nautiyaal shivaanand 1998 kumaaooain darshan. Lucknow; sulabh prakaashan.
  • Saxena kaushal kishor 1994 kumaaooain kala, shilp aur sanskruti. almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • Vajpayee shri krushnadatt 1962 uttar pradesh ka saanskrutik itihaas. Agra; shivlaal Agrawal end company (pra.) li..
  • paathak shekhar 1992 pahaad himaalayi samaaj, sanskruti, itihaas tatha paryaavaran par kendrit. di. ke faain Art press.
  • varma vimla 1987 uttar pradesh ki lokakala, bhoomi aur bhipti alankaran. Delhi; jaya shri prakaashan.
  • mathapaal yashodhar 1997 uttaraakhand ka kaashthashilp. deharaadoon; shiva ofaset press.
  • Agrawal, di.pi. evam M.pi. Joshi 1978 "rock peinting in kumaaooain". main end invaayaranameint bha. Indian society for preehistri end kvaartanari stadeej (Ahmedabad).
  • trivedi vipin bihaari 1987 uttar pradesh saahitya, sanskruti evam kala. nai Delhi; S. chand end company (pra.) li..
  • upreti Nathuram 1977 kumaaooain ki lokakala, kumaaooainni sanskruti. rudrapur; upayogi prakaashan.
  • etakinsan, iyateeya 1973 the himaalayan gajetiyr va. ksh va kshksh. Delhi; kaasmo pablikeshan.
  • kathoch yashavant Singh 1981 sadhya himaalaya ka puraatatv. Lucknow; rohitaashv printars.
  • garola, ti.di. 1934 himaalayan fokalor. Allahabad.
  • jain kamal Kumar 1983 uttaraakhand ke devalayon ka parikshan. Lucknow; dhyaanam pablikeshan.
  • Joshi, M.pi. 1992 uttaraanyachal (kumaaooain - gadhvaal himaalaya). almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • Joshi prayaag 1990 kumaaooainni lok gaathaaeain : ek saaskrutik adhyayan. bareli; prakaash book dipo.
  • dabaraal Shiv prasaad 1990 uttaraakhand ka itihaas. gadhvaal; veer gaatha prakaashan.
  • pokhariya Dave Singh 1989 "kumaaooain ke lokanrutya", uttaraakhand bhaag - 3. uttaraakhand shodh sansthaan.
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  • fruaingar, A.si. 1990 di jaagar : himaalaya paast end prajent. almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • bairaathi Krishna evam satyendr kush 1992 kumaaooain ki lok kala, sanskruti aur parampara. almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • baajaroyi krushnadatt 1990 bhaarateeya vaastukala ka itihaas. Lucknow; u.pr. hindi sansthaan.
  • nautiyaal, ke.pi. 1969 aarkeeyaulauji of kumaaooain inkalooding. Varanasi; chaukhamba sanskrut series.
  • bh madan chandr 1981 uttaraakhand ka "puraatatv visheshaank".
  • mathapaal yashodhar 1987 uttaraakhand ki sanskruti ki aitihaasik prushthabhoomi uttaraakhand vaarshiki, uttaraakhand shodh sansthaan.
  • vaishnav yamunaadatt 1983 kumaaooain ka itihaas, "khas kassaait jaati ke paripekshya mein". almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • paande, pi.si. 1990 ithanobautani of kumaaooain himaalaya, himaalaya invaayaranameint end dabalapamet. almoda; shri almoda book dipo.
  • sarraaf, di.N. 1982 endiyn kraafts. Delhi; vikaal pablikinshag haaoos, anasaari road.
  • paande girish chandr 1977 uttaraakhand ki arthavyavastha. naineetaal; kansal pablishrs.
  • paaleevaal, Narayan datt 1985 kumaaooainni - hindi shabdakosh. Delhi; takshashila prakaashan.
  • paande, chaaru chandr 1985 kumaaooainni kavi 'gorda' ka kaavya darshan. almoda; deshbhakt press.
  • vaishnav shaaligraam 1923 uttaraakhand rahasya. Nagpur-chamoli; pushkaraashram.
  • saankrutyaayan Rahul 1953 himaalaya parichay. Allahabad; law journal press.
  • Singh veer 1989 kheti aur pashu : pahaadi kheti ke aadhaar. naineetaal; sampaadak va prakaashak paathak.
  • Joshi, M.pi. 1974 sam rear skalpachars fraam kumaaooain hills sangrahaalaya puraatatv patrika.

baahari kadiyaaain