uttar pradesh

uttar pradesh
ganga-yamuna ki bhoomi
raajya
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
kshetr avadh, baghelakhand, braj, bundelakhand, poorvaanchal, rohilkhand, gaangeya kshetr
jila 751
uttar pradesh 14 November 18342
rajdhani Lucknow
sabse bada mahanagar Kanpur
raajyapaal Ram naaik
mukhyamantri Akhilesh Yadav
vidhaan sabha (seatein) dvisdaneeya (404 + 108 = 512)
sansadeeya nirvaachan kshetr 80 (varsh 2004)
uchch nyaayaalaya Allahabad uchch nyaayaalaya
Bhaarat ke jila nyaayaalaya
janasankhya
ghanatv
19,95,81,477[1] (pehla)
• 828 /kimi2 (2,145 /varg meal)[1]
lingaanupaat 908 / 1000 /
saaksharata
• purush
• mahila
69.72%
• 79.24%
• 59.26%
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) hindi, urdoo
kshetrafal 2,38,566 ki.mee² (92,111 varg meal)
mausam
taapamaan
• greeshm
• sheet

31 °aC (88 °aF)
46 °aC (115 °aF)
6 °aC (43 °aF)
prashaasi nikaaya Bhaarat sarkaar, uttar pradesh sarkaar
ISO 3166-2 IN-UP
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.upgov.nic.in
उत्तर प्रदेश praveshadvaar: uttar pradesh

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 26°a51′aN 80°a55′aE / 26.85°aN 80.91°aE / 26.85; 80.91

Agra aur avadh sanyukt praant 1903
uttar pradesh sarkaar ka raajachinh

uttar pradesh Bhaarat ka sabse bada (janasankhya ke aadhaar par) raajya hai. Lucknow pradesh ki prashaasanik va vidhaayik rajdhani hai aur Allahabad nyaayik rajdhani hai. pradesh ke anya mahattvapoorn shahar hain Agra, Aligadh, ayodhya, Kanpur, bareli, Meerut, Varanasi(banaaras),jaunapur, Gorakhpur, devariya, gaajiyaabaad, muraadaabaad, sahaaranapur, faijaabaad. iske padosi raajya hain uttaraakhand, Himachal pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, madhya pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar. uttar pradesh ki poorvottar disha mein Nepal desh hai.

san 2000 mein bhaarateeya sansad ne uttar-pradesh ke uttar pashchimi (mukhyat: pahaadi) bhaag se uttaraanchal (vartamaan mein uttaraakhand) raajya ka nirmaan kiya. uttar pradesh ka adhiktar hissa saghan aabaadi vaale ganga aur yamuna ke maidaan hain. lagbhag 20 karod ki janasankhya ke saath uttar pradesh keval Bhaarat ka adhiktam janasankhya wala pradesh hi naheen balki vishv ki sarvaadhik aabaadi waali up raashtreeya ikaai hai. vishv mein keval paaainch raashtra cheen, swayam Bhaarat, sanyukt amareeka, indonishiya aur braajeel ki janasankhya uttar-pradesh ki janasankhya se adhik hai.

uttar pradesh Bhaarat ke uttar me sthit hai. yeh raajya uttar me Nepal, Tibet dakshin mein madhya pradesh, pashchim mein Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan tatha poorv me Bihar se ghira hai. uttar pradesh ki rajdhani Lucknow hai. yeh raajya 2,38,566 varg kilometer ke kshetrafal me faila hua hai. yahaaain ka mukhya nyaayaalaya Allahabad mein hai. Kanpur, jhaaainsi, Lakhimpur kheeri, Varanasi, jaunapur,Allahabad, faijaabaad, aajmagadh, bareli, Meerut, mujffaranagar, muraadaabaad, Ghaziabad, Aligadh, Gorakhpur, sahaaranapur, Mathura, Noida yahaaain ke mukhya shahar hain.

anukram

itihaas

uttar pradesh ka gyaat itihaas lagbhag 4000 varsh puraana hai, jab aaryon ne apna pehla kadam is jagah par rakha. is samay vaidik sabhyata ka praarambh hua aur uttar pradesh mein iska janm hua. aaryon ka failaav sindhu nadi aur sataluj ke maidaani bhaagon se yamuna aur ganga ke maidaani kshetr ki or hua. aaryon ne dob (do-aab, yamuna aur ganga ka maidaani bhaag) aur ghaaghara nadi kshetr ko apna ghar banaaya. inheen aaryon ke naam par Bhaarat desh ka naam aaryaavart ya bhaaratavarsh (Bhaarat aaryon ke ek pramukh raaja the) pada. samay ke saath aarya Bhaarat ke doorasth bhaagon mein fail gaye. sansaar ke praacheenatam shaharon mein ek maana jaane wala Varanasi shahar yaheen par sthit hai. Varanasi ke paas sthit saaranaath ka chaukhandi stoop Bhagwan buddh ke pratham pravachan ki yaad dilaata hai. samay ke saath yeh kshetr chhote-chhote raajyon mein baint gaya ya fir bade saamraajyon, gupta, morya aur kushaan ka hissa ban gaya. 7veen shataabdi mein kannauj gupta saamraajya ka pramukh kendra tha.

hindu-bauddh kaal

saataveen shataabdi E. poo. ke ant se Bhaarat aur uttar pradesh ka vyavasthit itihaas aarambh hota hai, jab uttari Bhaarat mein 16 mahaajanapad shreshthata ki daud mein shaamil the, inmein se saat vartamaan uttar pradesh ki seema ke antargat the. buddh ne apna pehla upadesh Varanasi (banaaras) ke nikat saaranaath mein diya aur ek aise dharm ki neenv rakhi, jo na keval Bhaarat mein, balki cheen va Japan jaise sudoor deshon tak bhi faila. kaha jaata hai ki buddh ko kusheenagar mein parinirvaan (shareer se mukt hone par aatma ki mukti) praapt hua tha, jo poorvi jile kusheenagar mein sthit hai. paaainchaveen shataabdi E. poo. se chhathi shataabdi E. tak uttar pradesh apni vartamaan seema se baahar kendrit shaktiyon ke niyantran mein raha, pehle magadh, jo vartamaan Bihar raajya mein sthit tha aur baad mein ujjain, jo vartamaan madhya pradesh raajya mein sthit hai. is raajya par shaasan kar chuke is kaal ke mahaan shaasakon mein chandragupt pratham (shaasanakaal lagbhag 330-380 E.) va ashok (shaasanakaal lagbhag 268 ya 265-238), jo maurya samraat the aur samudragupt (lagbhag 330-380 E.) aur chandragupt dviteeya hain (lagbhag 380-415 E., jinhein kuchh vidvaan vikramaaditya maanate hain). ek anya prasiddh shaasak harshavardhan (shaasanakaal 606-647) the. jinhonne kaanyakubj (aadhunik kannauj ke nikat) sthit apni rajdhani se samooche uttar pradesh, Bihar, madhya pradesh, Punjab aur raajasthaanake kuchh hisson par shaasan kiya.

is kaal ke dauraan bauddh aur hindu (braahman) sanskruti, donon ka utkarsh hua. ashok ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan bauddh kala ke sthaapatya va vaastushilp prateek apne charam par pahuainche. gupt kaal (lagbhag 320-550) ke dauraan hindu kala ka bhi adhiktam vikaas hua. lagbhag 647 E. mein harsh ki mrutyu ke baad hindoovaad ke punarutthaan ke saath hi bauddh dharm ka dheere-dheere patan ho gaya. is punarutthaan ke pramukh rachayita dakshin Bhaarat mein janme shankar the, jo Varanasi pahuainche, unhonne uttar pradesh ke maidaanon ki yaatra ki aur himaalaya mein badreenaath mein prasiddh mandir ki sthaapana ki. ise hindu mataavalambi chautha evam antim math (hindu sanskruti ka kendra) maanate hain.

muslim kaal

is kshetr mein haalaaainki 1000-1030 E. tak musalmaanon ka aakraman ho chuka tha, kintu uttari Bhaarat mein 12veen shataabdi ke antim dashak ke baad hi muslim shaasan sthaapit hua, jab muhammad gori ne gahadvaalon (jinka uttar pradesh par shaasan tha) aur anya pratispardhi vanshon ko haraaya tha. lagbhag 650 varshon tak adhikaansh Bhaarat ki tarah uttar pradesh par bhi kisi na kisi muslim vansh ka shaasan raha, jinka kendra Delhi ya uske aaspaas tha. 1526 E. mein baabar ne Delhi ke sulataan ibraaheem lodi ko haraaya aur sarvaadhik safal muslim vansh, mugl vansh ki neenv rakhi. is saamraajya ne 350 varshon se bhi adhik samay tak upamahaadveep par shaasan kiya. is saamraajya ka mahaanatam kaal Akbar (shaasanakaal 1556-1605 E.) se lekar aurangajeb aalamgeer (1707) ka kaal tha, jinhonne Agra ke paas nai shaahi rajdhani ftehapur seekari ka nirmaan kiya. unke pote shaahajahaaain (shaasanakaal 1628-1658 E.) ne Agra mein Tajmahal (apni begam ki yaad mein banavaaya gaya makbara, jo prasav ke dauraan chal basi theen) banavaaya, jo vishv ke mahaanatam vaastushilpeeya namoonon mein se ek hai. shaahajahaaain ne Agra va Delhi mein bhi vaastushilp ki drushti se kai mahattvapoorn imaaratein banavaain theen. muslim kaal ke Bhaarat ko hi aaingrej sone ki chidiya kaha karte the.

uttar pradesh mein kendrit mugl saamraajya ne ek nai mishrit sanskruti ke vikaas ko protsaahit kiya. Akbar iske pratipaadak the, jinhonne bina kisi bhedabhaav ke apne darbaar mein vaastushilp, saahitya, chitrakala aur sangeet visheshagyon ko niyukt kiya tha. Bhaarat ke vibhinn mat aur islaam ke mel ne kai nae maton ka vikaas kiya, jo Bhaarat ki vibhinn jaatiyon ke beech saadhaaran sahamati prasthaapit karna chaahate the. bhakti aandolan ke sansthaapak raamaanand (lagbhag 1400-1470 E.) ka pratipaadan tha ki, kisi vyakti ki mukti 'ling' ya 'jaati' par aashrit naheen hoti. sabhi dharmon ke beech anivaarya ekta ki shiksha dene vaale kabeer ne uttar pradesh mein maujood dhaarmik asahishnuta ke viruddh apni ladaai kendrit ki. 18veen shataabdi mein muglon ke patan ke saath hi is mishrit sanskruti ka kendra Delhi se Lucknow chala gaya, jo avadh ke navaab ke antargat tha aur jahaaain saampradaayik sadbhaav ke vaataavaran mein kala, saahitya, sangeet aur kaavya ka utkarsh hua.

british kaal

lagbhag 75 varsh ki avadhi mein uttar pradesh ke kshetr ka East indiya company (british vyaapaarik company) ne dheere-dheere adhigrahan kiya. vibhinn uttar bhaarateeya vanshon 1775, 1798 aur 1801 mein navaabon, 1803 mein sindhiya aur 1816 mein gorakhon se chheene gaye pradeshon ko pehle Bengal prejidensi ke antargat rakha gaya, lekin 1833 mein inhein alag karke pashchimottar praant (aarambh mein Agra prejidensi kahalaata tha) gathit kiya gaya. 1856 E. mein company ne avadh par adhikaar kar liya aur Agra evam avadh sanyukt praant (vartamaan uttar pradesh ki seema ke samaroop) ke naam se ise 1877 E. mein pashchimottar praant mein mila liya gaya. 1902 E. mein iska naam badalkar sanyukt praant kar diya gaya.

1857-1859 E. ke beech East indiya company ke viruddh hua vidroh mukhyat: pashchimottar praant tak seemit tha. 10 May 1857 E. ko Meerut mein sainikon ke beech bhadka vidroh kuchh hi maheenon mein 25 se bhi adhik shaharon mein fail gaya. 1858 E. mein vidroh ke daman ke baad pashchimottar aur shesh british Bhaarat ka prashaasan East indiya company se british taaj ko hastaantarit kar diya gaya. 1880 E. ke uttaraarddh mein bhaarateeya raashtravaad ke udaya ke saath sanyukt praant svatantrata aandolan mein agrani raha. pradesh ne Bhaarat ko Motilal Nehru, madan mohan maalaveeya, javaaharalaal Nehru aur purushottam das Tandon jaise mahattvapoorn raashtravaadi raajaneetik neta diye. 1922 mein Bhaarat mein british saamraajya ki neenv hilaane ke liye kiya gaya mahaatma Gandhi ka asahayog aandolan poore sanyukt praant mein fail gaya, lekin chauri chaura gaaainv (praant ke poorvi bhaag mein) mein hui hinsa ke kaaran mahaatma Gandhi ne asthaayi taur par aandolan ko rok diya. sanyukt praant muslim league ki raajaneeti ka bhi kendra raha. british kaal ke dauraan railway, nahar aur praant ke bheetar hi sanchaar ke saadhanon ka vyaapak vikaas hua. angrejon ne yahaaain aadhunik shiksha ko bhi badhaava diya aur yahaaain par Lucknow vishvavidyaalaya (1921 mein sthaapit) jaise vishvavidyaalaya va kai mahaavidyaalaya sthaapit kiye.

pratham svatantrata sangraam

san 1857 mein angreji fauj ke bhaarateeya sipaahiyon ne vidroh kar diya. yeh vidroh ek saal tak chala aur adhiktar uttar Bhaarat mein fail gaya. ise Bhaarat ka pratham svatantrata sangraam kaha gaya. is vidroh ka praarambh Meerut shahar mein hua. is ka kaaran angrejon dvaara gaaya aur suar ki charbi se yukt kaaratoos dena bataaya gaya. is sangraam ka ek pramukh kaaran dalahauji ki raajya hadapne ki neeti bhi thi. yeh ladaai mukhyat: Delhi,Lucknow,Kanpur,jhaaainsi aur bareli mein ladi gayi. is ladaai mein jhaaainsi ki raani lakshmeebaai, avadh ki begam hajrat mahal, bakht Khan, naana saaheb, maulvi ahamadulla shaah, raaja beni maadhav sinh, ajeemullaah Khan aur anek deshabhakton ne bhaag liya.

beesaveen sadi

san 1902 mein North vest provins ka naam badal kar United provins of Agra end avadh kar diya gaya. saadhaaran bolachaal ki bhaasha mein ise UP kaha gaya. san 1920 mein pradesh ki rajdhani ko Allahabad se Lucknow kar diya gaya. pradesh ka uchch nyaayaalaya Allahabad hi bana raha aur Lucknow mein uchch nyaayaalaya ki ek nyaayapeeth sthaapit ki gayi.

svatantrata pashchaat ka kaal

1947 mein sanyukt praant nav svatantr bhaarateeya ganaraajya ki ek prashaasanik ikaai bana. do saal baad iski seema ke antargat sthit, tihri gadhvaal aur Rampur ke svaayatt raajyon ko sanyukt praant mein shaamil kar liya gaya. 1950 mein nae samvidhaan ke laagoo hone ke saath hi 12 January san 1950 ko is sanyukt praant ka naam uttar pradesh rakha gaya aur yeh bhaarateeya sangh ka raajya bana. svatantrata ke baad se Bhaarat mein is raajya ki pramukh bhoomika rahi hai. isne desh ko Jawahar laal Nehru aur unki putri indira Gandhi sahit kai pradhaanamantri, soshalist party ke sansthaapak aachaarya Narendra Dave, jaise pramukh raashtreeya vipakshi (alpasankhyak) dalon ke neta aur bhaarateeya janasangh, baad mein bhaarateeya janta party va pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee jaise neta diye hain. raajya ki raajaneeti, haalaaainki vibhaajanakaari rahi hai aur kam hi mukhyamantriyon ne paaainch varsh ki avadhi poori ki hai. govind vallabh pant is pradesh ke pratham mukhya mantri bane. October 1963 mein sucheta krupalaani uttar pradesh evam Bhaarat ki pratham mahila mukhya mantri bani.

san 2000 mein poorvottar uttar pradesh ke pahaadi kshetr sthit gadhvaal aur kumaaooain mandal ko mila kar ek naye raajya uttaraanchal ka gathan kiya gaya jiska naam baad mein badal kar 2007 mein uttaraakhand kar diya gaya hai.

maayaavati pehli dalit mahila hain jo Bhaarat ke kisi raajya ki mukhyamantri bani hain.[2].

raajya ka vibhaajan

uttar pradesh ke gathan ke turant baad uttaraakhand kshetr (gadhvaal aur kumaaooain kshetr dvaara nirmit) mein samasyaaeain uth khadi huin. is kshetr ke logon ko laga ki, vishaal janasankhya aur vruhad bhaugolik vistaar ke kaaran Lucknow mein baithi sarkaar ke liye unke hiton ki dekharekh karna sambhav naheen hai. berojgaari, gareebi aur saamaanya vyavastha va peene ke paani jaisi aadhaarbhoot suvidhaaon ki kami aur kshetr ke apekshaakrut kam vikaas ne logon ko ek alag raajya ki maaaing karne par vivsh kar diya. shuroo-shuroo mein virodh kamzor tha, lekin 1990 ke dashak mein isne jor pakada va aandolan tab aur bhi ugr ho gaya, jab 2 October 1994 ko mujffranagar mein is aandolan ke ek pradarshan mein police dvaara ki gayi goleebaari mein 40 log maare gaye. antat: November, 2000 mein uttar pradesh ke pashchimottar hisse se uttaraanchal ke nae raajya ka, jismein kumaaooain aur gadhvaal ke pahaadi kshetr shaamil the, gathan kiya gaya.

uttar pradesh se sambandhit kuchh tathya

sambhaagoain ki sankhya- 18

jiloain ki sankhya- 75

tahaseeloain ki sankhya- 332

vishvavidyaalayoain ki sankhya- 55[5]

vidhaanamandal- dvisdanaatmak

vidhaan sabha sadasyoain ki sankhya- 403+1 (engloiaindiyn) = 404

vidhaan parishad sadasyoain ki sankhya- 99+1 (engloiaindiyn) = 100

Loksabha sadasyoain ki sankhya- 80

Rajyasabha sadasyoain ki sankhya- 31

uchch nyaayaalaya- Allahabad (khandapeeth- Lucknow)

bhaasha- hindi (urdoo doosari raajabhaasha)

raajakeeya pakshi- saaras ya krauainch

raajakeeya ped- ashok

raajakeeya pushp- palaash

raajakeeya chinh- machhali evain teer kamaan

sthaapana diwas- 1 November 1956

bhoogol

uttar pradesh Bhaarat ke uttar poorvi bhaag mein sthit hai. pradesh ke uttari evam poorvi bhaag ki taraf pahaad tatha pashchimi evam madhya bhaag mein maidaan hain. uttar pradesh ko mukhyat: teen kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai.

  1. uttar mein himaalaya ka kshetr - yah kshetr bahut hi ooaincha-neecha aur pratikool bhoo-bhaag hai. yeh kshetr ab uttaraanchal ke antargat aata hai. is kshetr ki sthalaakruti badlaav yukt hai. samudra tal se iski ooainchaai 300 se 5000 meter tatha dhalaan 150 se 600 meter/kilometer hai.
  2. madhya mein ganga ka maidaani bhaag - yeh kshetr atyant hi upajaaoo jalodh mitti ka kshetr hai. iski sthalaakruti sapaat hai. is kshetr mein anek taalaab, jheelein aur nadiyaaain hain. iska dhalaan 2 meter/kilometer hai.
  3. dakshin ka vindhyaachal kshetr - yeh ek pathaari kshetr hai, tatha iski sthalaakruti pahaadon, maindaanon aur ghaatiyon se ghiri hui hai. is kshetr mein paani kam maatra mein uplabdh hai.

yahaaain ki jalavaayu mukhyat: ushnadesheeya monsoon ki hai parantu samudra tal se ooainchaai badalne ke saath ismein parivartan hota hai. uttar pradesh 8 raajyon - uttaraakhand, Himachal pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, madhya pradesh, Chhattisgarh, jhaarakhand, Bihar se ghira raajya hai

bhoogoleeya tatv

uttar pradesh ke pramukh bhoogoleeya tatv is prakaar se hain-

bhoo-aakruti - uttar pradesh ko do vishisht bhaugolik kshetron, ganga ke madhyavarti maidaan aur dakshini uchchabhoomi mein baaainta ja sakta hai. uttar pradesh ke kul kshetrafal ka lagbhag 90 pratishat hissa ganga ke maidaan mein hai. maidaan adhikaanshat: ganga va usaki sahaayak nadiyon ke dvaara laae gaye jalodh avasaadon se bane hain. is kshetr ke adhikaansh hisson mein utaar-chadhaav naheen hai, yadyapi maidaan bahut upajaaoo hai, lekin inki ooainchaai mein kuchh bhinnata hai, jo pashchimottar mein 305 meter aur sudoor poorv mein 58 meter hai. ganga ke maidaan ki dakshini uchchabhoomi atyadhik vichhedit aur visham vindhya parvatamaala ka ek bhaag hai, jo saamaanyat: dakshin-poorv ki or uthati chali jaati hai. yahaaain ooainchaai kaheen-kaheen hi 305 se adhik hoti hai.

  • nadiyaaain

uttar pradesh mein anek nadiyaaain hai jinmein ganga, ghaaghara, gomati, yamuna, chambal, son aadi mukhya hai. pradesh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein pravaahit hone waali in nadiyon ke udagam sthaan bhi bhinn-bhinn hai, at: inke udagam sthalon ke aadhaar par inhein nimnalikhit bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai.

himaalaya parvat se nikalne waali nadiyaaain ganga ke maidaani bhaag se nikalne waali nadiyaaain dakshini pathaar se nikalne waali nadiyaaain

uttar pradesh mein jheelon ka abhaav hai. yahaaain ki adhikaansh jheelein kumaaooain kshetr mein hain jo ki pramukhat: bhoogarbheeya shaktiyon ke dvaara bhoomi ke dharaatal mein parivartan ho jaane ke parinaamasvaroop nirmit hui hain.

naharon ke vitran evam vistaar ki drushti se uttar pradesh ka agraneeya sthaan hai. yahaaain ki kul sinchit bhoomi ka lagbhag 30 pratishat bhaag naharon ke dvaara sinchit hota hai. yahaaain ki naharein Bhaarat ki praacheenatam naharon mein se ek hain.

  • apavaah

yeh raajya uttar mein himaalaya aur dakshin mein vindhya parvatamaala se udagamit nadiyon ke dvaara bhali-bhaaainti apavaahit hai. ganga evam usaki sahaayak nadiyon, yamuna nadi, raamaganga nadi, gomati nadi, ghaaghara nadi aur gandak nadi ko himaalaya ke him se lagaataar paani milta rahata hai. vindhya shreni se nikalne waali chanbal nadi, betava nadi aur ken nadi yamuna nadi mein milne se pehle raajya ke dakshin-pashchimi hisse mein bahti hai. vindhya shreni se hi nikalne waali son nadi raajya ke dakshin-poorvi bhaag mein bahti hai aur raajya ki seema se baahar Bihar mein ganga nadi se milti hai.

uttar pradesh ke kshetrafal ka lagbhag do-tihaai bhaag ganga tantr ki dheemi gati se bahne waali nadiyon dvaara laai gayi jalodh mitti ki gahari parat se dhanka hai. atyadhik upajaaoo yeh jalodh mitti kaheen reteeli hai, to kaheen chikni domat. raajya ke dakshini bhaag ki mitti saamaanyataya mishrit laal aur kaali ya laal se lekar peeli hai. raajya ke pashchimottar kshetr mein mruda kankareeli se lekar urvar domat tak hai, jo maheen ret aur hyoomas mishrit hai, jiske kaaran kuchh kshetron mein ghane jungle hain.

uttar pradesh ki jalavaayu ushnakatibandheeya maanasooni hai. raajya mein ausat taapamaan January mein 12.50 se 17.50 se. rahata hai, jabki May-June mein yeh 27.50 se 32.50 se. ke beech rahata hai. poorv se (1,000 mimi se 2,000 mimi) pashchim (610 mimi se 1,000 mimi) ki or varsha kam hoti jaati hai. raajya mein lagbhag 90 pratishat varsha dakshin-pashchim monsoon ke dauraan hoti hai, jo June se sitmbar tak hoti hai. varsha ke in chaar maheenon mein hone ke kaaran baadh ek aavarti samasya hai, jisse khaasakar raajya ke poorvi hisse mein fsal, janajeevan va sampatti ko bhaari nuksaan pahuainchata hai. monsoon ki lagaataar vifalta ke parinaamasvaroop sookha padta hai va fsal ka nuksaan hota hai.

raajya mein van mukhyat: dakshini uchchabhoomi par kendrit hain, jo jyaadaatar jhaadeedaar hain. vividh sthalaakruti evam jalavaayu ke kaaran is kshetr ka praani jeevan samruddh hai. is kshetr mein sher, teinduaa, haathi, jangali sooar, ghadiyaal ke saath-saath kabootar, faakhta, jangali battakh, teetar, mor, kathafodva, neelakanth aur bater paae jaate hain. kai prajaatiyaaain, jaise-ganga ke maidaan se Singh aur taraai kshetr se gainde ab vilupt ho chuke hain. vanya jeevan ke sanrakshan ke liye sarkaar ne 'chandraprabha vanyajeev abhayaaranya' aur 'dudhava abhayaaranya' sahit kai abhayaaranya sthaapit kiye hain.

janajeevan

isse ek alag raajya ke gathan hone ke baavajood uttar pradesh abhi bhi janasankhya ke maamale mein sabhi raajyon aur kendrashaasit pradeshon se kaafi aage hai. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, raajya ki janasankhya 25.80 pratishat badhi. janasankhya ka laukik anupaat (prati 1000 purush par mahilaaon ki sankhya) 898 darj kiya gaya hai, jo 1991 ke 876 ke mukaabale behtar hai. ganga ka maidaan, jahaaain janasankhya ka ghanatv sabse adhik hai, raajya ki 80 pratishat se bhi adhik janasankhya ka bharan-poshan karta hai. iski tulana mein himaalaya kshetr va dakshini uchchabhoomi mein janasankhya ka ghanatv bahut kam hai.

arthavyavastha

uttar pradesh ki arthavyavastha ke nimn saadhan hain-

aarthik taur par uttar pradesh desh ke atyadhik alpaviksit raajyon mein se ek hai. yeh mukhyat: krushi pradhaan raajya hai aur yahaaain ki teen-chauthaai (75 pratishat) se adhik janasankhya krushi kaaryon mein lagi hui hai. raajya mein audyogikeekaran ke liye mahattvapoorn khanij evam oorja sansaadhanon ki kami hai. yahaaain par keval silika, choona patthar va koyale jaise khanij padaarth hi ullekhaneeya maatra mein paae jaate hain. iske alaava yahaaain jipsam, maignetaait, fausforaait aur bauksaait ke alp bhandaar bhi paae jaate hain.

raajya ki arthavyavastha ka mukhya aadhaar krushi hai. chaaval, gehooain, jvaar, baajara, jau aur ganna raajya ki mukhya fsalein hain. 1960 ke dashak se gehooain va chaaval ki uchch paidaavaar vaale beejon ke prayog, urvarakon ki adhik upalabdhata aur sinchaai ke adhik istemaal se uttar pradesh khaadyaann ka sabse bada utpaadak raajya ban gaya hai. yadyapi kisaan do pramukh samasyaaon se grast hain: aarthik roop se alaabhakaari chhote khet aur behtar utpaadan ke liye praudyogiki mein nivesh karne ke liye aparyaapt sansaadhan, raajya ki adhiktam krushi bhoomi kisaanon ko mushkil se hi bharan-poshan kar paati hai. pashudhan va dairy udyog aay ke atirikt srot hain. uttar pradesh mein Bhaarat ke kisi bhi shahar ke mukaabale sarvaadhik pashu paae jaate hain. haalaaainki prati gaaya doodh ka utpaadan kam hai.

raajya mein kaafi samay se maujood vastr udyog va cheeni prasanskaran udyog mein raajya ke kul milkarmiyon ka lagbhag ek-tihaai hissa laga hai. raajya ki adhikaansh milein puraani va aksham hain. anya sansaadhan aadhaarit udyogon mein vanaspati tel, joot va cement udyog shaamil hain. kendra sarkaar ne yahaaain par bhaari upakaran, masheenein, ispaat, vaayuyaan, teleefon, electronic upakaran aur urvarakon ke utpaadan vaale bahut se bade kaarakhaane sthaapit kiye hain. yahaaain Mathura mein ek tel parishkaranashaala aur raajya ke dakshin-poorvi mirjaapur jile mein koyala kshetr ka vikaas kendra sarkaar ki do pramukh pariyojanaaeain hain. raajya sarkaar ne madhyam aur laghu star ke udyogon ko protsaahan diya hai.

hastashilp, kaaleen, peetal ki vastueain, joote-chappal, chamade va khel ka saamaan raajya ke niryaat mein pramukhata ke saath yogadaan dete hain. bhadoi va mirjaapur ke kaaleen duniya bhar mein saraahe jaate hain. pilkhuva ki haind block print ki chaadarein, Varanasi ka resham va jri ka kaam, muraadaabaad ki peetal ki khoobasoorat vastueain, Lucknow ki chiknakaari, nageena ka aabanoos ki lakdi ka kaam, firojaabaad ki kaaainch ki vastueain aur sahaaranapur ka nakkaasheedaar lakdi ka kaam bhi ullekhaneeya hai. saarvajanik kshetr ke vaanijyik bankon ki sankhya uttar pradesh mein hi sabse adhik hai. desh ke vikaas mein is pradesh ka bahut hi mahattvapoorn yogadaan hai. vartamaan samay mein uttar pradesh bijli ki bheeshan kami ka shikaar hai. 1951 se sthaapit anya vidyut utpaadan kendron se kshamata badhi hai, lekin maaaing aur aapoorti ke beech antar badhta hi ja raha hai. Bhaarat ke adhiktam taapavidyut kendron mein se ek obara-rihand (dakshin-poorvi uttar pradesh), raajya ke kai anya hisson mein sthit vibhinn panabijli sanyantron aur bulandashahar ke parmaanu bijleeghar mein bijli ka utpaadan kiya jaata hai. varsh 2004-05 mein uttar pradesh mein kul 5,21,835 laghu udyog ikaaiyaaain theen, jinmein lagbhag 5,131 karod rupaye ki poonji ka nivesh tha aur lagbhag 20,01,000 log kaam kar rahe the. varsh 2004-05 mein raajya mein lagbhag 45.51 lakh tan cheeni ka utpaadan hua. uttar pradesh raajya mein 68 kapda milein aur 32 aatomobaail ke kaarkhaane hain, jinmein 5,740 karod rupaye ki poonji ka nivesh hai. san 2011 tak 'Noida praadhikran' ke antargat 102 sector viksit karne ki yojana chal rahi hai. is praadhikran mein audyogik kshetr, aavaaseeya kshetr, group housing kshetr, aavaaseeya bhavan, vyaavasaayik parisampattiyaan aur sansthaagat shiksha kshetr shaamil hain. Noida aur greater Noida ki bhaanti hi raajya mein anya sthaanon par audyogik kshetron ko viksit karne ke liye kaarya kiye ja rahe hain.

vaise to yahaaain udyogon ke liye kaafi sanbhaavanaayein hain aur kai bade udyog yahaaain lage hue hain. vaise uttar pradesh ke haradoi jile mein pehli ayurvedik dava udyog ki sthaapana new India faarmaasyutikls naam se ki gayi hai. yeh odhogik ikaai kareeb sau se adhik davaaaon ka utpaadan kar rahi hai. tebalet sirp ke saath saath kai anya davaaon ka nirmaan yahaaain hota hai. haalaaainki abhi yeh samooh apni poori taakat se vistaar ki aur agasar hai aur ise jaagruk logon ki jarurat hai jo iske utpaadan ko bhaarateeya baajaar mein pahuaincha sake.

yaataayaat aur parivhan

raajya ke pramukh shahar va nagar sadkon va rel sampark se jude hain, fir bhi aamtaur par sadkon ki sthiti khraab hai aur rel ki patariyon ki bhinn laainon (badi aur chhoti) ke beech saamanjasya na hone ke kaaran rel pranaali bhi prabhaavit hui hai. Lucknow uttari network ka mukhya jankshan hai. uttar pradesh ke mukhya nagar vaayumaarg dvaara Delhi va Bhaarat ke anya shaharon se jude hue hain. raajya ke bheetar ke parivhan tantr mein ganga, yamuna aur ghaaghara nadiyon ki antardesheeya jal parivhan vyavastha bhi shaamil hai.

  • sadkein

uttar pradesh ke lok nirmaan vibhaag dvaara nirmit sadkon ki kul lanbaai 1,18,946 kilometer hai. ismein 3,869 kilometer raashtreeya raajamaarg, 9,097 kilometer praanteeya raajamaarg, 1,05,980 kilometer anya jila sadkein aur 72,931 kilometer graameen sadkein hain.

  • railway maarg

railway ka uttari network ka mukhya jankshan rajdhani Lucknow hai. anya mahattvapoorn rel jankshan- Agra, Mathura, Kanpur, Allahabad, muglasaraaya, jaunapur,jhaaainsi, muraadaabaad, Varanasi, toondala, Gorakhpur, gonda, faijaabaad, bareli aur seetaapur hain.

  • uddayan vibhaag

pradesh mein Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, bareli, gaajiyaabaad, Gorakhpur, sahaaranapur aur raayabareli mein havaai adde hain.

aavaaseen rachana

raajya ki 80 pratishat se adhik janasankhya graameen kshetron mein rahati hai. graameen aavaason ki visheshataaeain hain- raajya ke pashchimi hisse mein paae jaane vaale ghane base hue gaaainv, poorvi kshetr mein paae jaane vaale chhote gaaainv aur madhya kshetr mein donon ka samooh hota hai, jiski chhat foos ya mitti ke khapadon se bani hoti hai. in makaanon mein haalaaainki aadhunik jeevan ki bahut kam suvidhaaeain hain, lekin shaharon ke paas base kuchh gaaainvon mein aadhunikeekaran ki prakriya spasht taur par dikhaai deti hai. cement se bane ghar, pakki sadkein, bijli, radio, television jaisi upabhokta vastueain paaramparik graameen jeevan ko badal rahi hain. shahari janasankhya ka aadhe se adhik hissa ek lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale shaharon mein rahata hai. Lucknow, Varanasi (banaaras), Agra, Kanpur aur Allahabad uttar pradesh ke paaainch sabse bade nagar hain. Kanpur uttar pradesh ke madhya kshetr mein sthit pramukh audyogik shahar hai. Kanpur ke poorvottar mein 82 kimi. ki doori par raajya ki rajdhani Lucknow sthit hai. hinduon ka sarvaadhik pavitra shahar Varanasi vishv ke praacheenatam satat aavaaseeya shaharon mein se ek hai. ek anya pavitra shahar Allahabad ganga, yamuna aur pauraanik sarasvati nadi ke sangam par sthit hai. raajya ke dakshin-pashchimi hisse mein sthit Agra mein mugl baadshah shaahajahaaain dvaara apni begam ki yaad mein banavaaya gaya makbara Tajmahal sthit hai. yeh Bhaarat ke prasiddh paryatan sthalon mein se ek hai.


hindi bhaasha ki janmasthali

uttar pradesh Bhaarat ki raajakeeya bhaasha hindi ki janmasthali hai. shataabdiyon ke dauraan hindi ke kai sthaaneeya svaroop viksit hue hain. saahityik hindi ne 19veen shataabdi tak khadi boli ka vartamaan svaroop (hindustaani) dhaaran naheen kiya tha. Varanasi ke bhaaratendu harishchandr (1850-1885 E.) un agrani lekhakon mein se the, jinhonne hindi ke is svaroop ka istemaal saahityik maadhyam ke taur par kiya tha.

saanskrutik jeevan

uttar pradesh hinduon ki praacheen sabhyata ka udagam sthal hai. vaidik saahitya mahaakaavya raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat (jismein shreemadbhaagavadageeta shaamil hai) ke ullekhaneeya hisson ka mool yahaaain ke kai aashramon mein hai. bauddh-hindu kaal (lagbhag 600 E. poo.-1200 E.) ke granthon va vaastushilp ne bhaarateeya saanskrutik viraasat mein bada yogadaan diya hai. 1947 ke baad se Bhaarat sarkaar ka chinh maurya samraat ashok ke dvaara banavaae gaye chaar Singh yukt stambh (Varanasi ke nikat saaranaath mein sthit) par aadhaarit hai. vaastushilp, chitrakaari, sangeet, nrutyakala aur do bhaashaaeain (hindi va urdoo) mugl kaalake dauraan yahaaain par fali-fooli. is kaal ke chitron mein saamaanyat: dhaarmik va aitihaasik granthon ka chitran hai. yadyapi saahitya va sangeet ka ullekh praacheen sanskrut granthon mein kiya gaya hai aur maana jaata hai ki gupt kaal (lagbhag 320-540) mein sangeet samruddh hua. sangeet parampara ka adhikaansh hissa is kaal ke dauraan uttar pradesh mein viksit hua. taanasen va baijoo baavara jaise sangeetajnya mugl shahanshaah Akbar ke darbaar mein the, jo raajya va samooche desh mein aaj bhi vikhyaat hain. bhaarateeya sangeet ke do sarvaadhik prasiddh vaadya sitaar (veena parivaar ka tantu vaadya) aur tabale ka vikaas isi kaal ke dauraan is kshetr mein hua. 18veen shataabdi mein uttar pradesh mein vrundaavan va Mathura ke mandiron mein bhaktipoorn nrutya ke taur par viksit shaastreeya nrutya shaili kathak uttari Bhaarat ki shaastreeya nrutya shailiyon mein sarvaadhik prasiddh hai. iske alaava graameen kshetron ke sthaaneeya geet va nrutya bhi hain. sabse prasiddh lokageet mausamon par aadhaarit hain.

tyohaar

samay samay par sabhi dharmon ke tyohaar manaaye jaate hain-

  • Allahabad mein pratyek baarahavein varsh mein Kumbh ka mela aayojit kiya jaata hai.
  • iske atirikt Allahabad mein pratyek 6 saal baad arddh Kumbh mele ka aayojan bhi kiya jaata hai.
  • Allahabad mein hi pratyek varsh January maah mein maagh mela bhi aayojit kiya jaata hai, jahaan badi sankhya mein log sangam mein nahaate hain.
  • anya melon mein Mathura, vrundaavan mein anek parvon ke mele aur jhoola mele lagte hain, jinmein prabhu ki pratimaaon ko sone evam chaaaindi ke jhoolon mein rakhakar jhulaaya jaata hai. ye jhoola mele lagbhag ek pakhavaade tak chalte hain.
  • kaartik poornima ke avsar par ganga nadi mein dubaki lagaana pavitra maana jaata hai aur iske liye gadhmukteshvar, soron shookarakshetr ka maargasheersh mela, raajaghaat, bithoor, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi mein badi sankhya mein log ekatrit hote hain.
  • Agra jile ke bateshvar kasbe mein pashuon ka prasiddh mela lagta hai.
  • baaraabanki jile ka deva mela muslim sant vaaris Ali shaah ke kaaran kaafi prasiddh hai.
  • iske atirikt yahaaain hindu tatha muslimon ke sabhi pramukh tyohaaron ko poore raajya mein harshollaas ke saath manaaya jaata hai.

paryatan sthal

uttar pradesh mein sabhi ke liye aakarshan ki kai cheejein hain.

chitr:shri ganesh mandir, jhaaainsi.jpg
shri ganesh mandir, jhaaainsi

dhava raashtreeya udyaan IUCN shreni 2(raashtreeya udyaan) sthiti uttar pradesh, Bhaarat niktatam shahar Lakhimpur kheeri nirdeshaank 22°a20′a0″aN 80°a38′a0″aEnirdeshaank: 22°a20′a0″aN 80°a38′a0″aE kshetrafl 490-varg-ki.mi. (190 varg meal) sthaapit 1977

sinchaai aur bijli

  • 14 January 2000 ko 'uttar pradesh raajya bijli board' ka punargathan karke 'uttar pradesh vidyut nigam', 'uttar pradesh raajya vidyut utpaadan' tatha 'uttar pradesh panabijli nigam' ko sthaapit kiya gaya hai.
  • 2004 - 05 mein raajya ki sinchaai kshamata badhaakar 319.17 lakh hekteyar tak karne ke liye 98,715 karod rupaye ka nivesh kiya gaya hai.
  • 'uttar pradesh raajya bijli board' ki sthaapana ke samay pan bijleegharon aur taap bijleegharon ki kul vidyut utpaadan kshamata 2,635 megawatt thi, jo aaj badhkar 4,621 megawatt tak ho gayi hai.

uttar pradesh mein bijli ka utpaadan sonabhadr jile se adhiktam hoti hai jo ki pradesh ke atyannt poorv mein ek pichhda ilaaka hai jis par uttar pradesh sarkaar ka dhyaan sabse antim mein jaata hai, ye uptapaadan ikaaiyaan nimn hai:- 1.tharmal power obara 2.tharmal power anapara 3.N. ti. pi. si. beejapur 4.N.ti.pi.si shaktingar 5.renusaagar 6.rihnd pariyojana 7.lainko power plant-private 8.N.ti.pi.si. taanda

kala evam sanskruti

saahitya

hindi saahitya ke kshetr mein uttar pradesh ka sthaan sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn hai. saahitya aur bhaarateeya raksha sevaayeain, do aise kshetr hain jinmein uttar pradesh nivaasi garv kar sakte hain. Goswami tulaseedaas, kabeeradaas, sooradaas se lekar bhaarateindu harishchandr, aachaarya mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi, aachaarya Ram chandr shukl, muainshi premachand, jayashankar prasaad, sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala', sumitraanandan pant, maithaleesharan gupt, sohan laal Dwivedi, harivansharaaya Bachchan, mahaadevi varma, raahi maasoom raja, ajnyaeya jaise itne mahaan kavi aur lekhak hue hain uttar pradesh mein ki poora panna hi bhar jaaye. urdoo saahitya mein bhi bahut hi mahatvapoorn yogadaan raha hai uttar pradesh ka. firaak, josh maleehaabaadi, Akbar ilaahaabaadi, najeer, vaseem barelavi, chakabast jaise anginat shaayar uttar pradesh hi naheen varan desh ki shaan rahe hain. hindi saahitya ka kshetr bahut hi vyaapak raha hai aur lugadi saahitya bhi yahaaain khoob padha jaata hai.

sangeet

sangeet uttar pradesh ke vyakti ke jeevan mein bahut mahatvapoorn sthaan rakhata hai. yeh teen prakaar mein baanta ja sakta hai

1- paaramparik sangeet evam lok sangeet : yeh sangeet aur geet paaramparik maukon shaadi vivaah, holi, tyohaaron aadi samay par gaaya jaata hai

2- shaastreeya sangeet : uttar pradesh mein utkrusht gaayan aur vaadan ki parampara rahi hai.

3- hindi filmi sangeet evam Bhojpuri paup sangeet : is prakaar ka sangeet uttar pradesh mein sabse lokapriya.

paryatan sthal

uttar pradesh mein sabhi ke liye aakarshan ki kai cheejein hain.

  • Tajmahal, Agra,
  • praacheen teerth sthaanon mein Varanasi, ayodhya, vindhyaachal, chitrakoot, prayaag, soron, Mathura, vrundaavan, deva shareef aadi hai.
  • ftehapur seekari mein shekh saleem chishti ki dargaah,
  • saaranaath, shraavasti, kusheenagar, sankisa / basantapur (jila eta, uttar pradesh), kaanpil/ vartamaan frrookhaabaad, pipraava aur kaushaanbi pramukh hain.
  • Agra, saaranaath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Jhansi[1] [[2]], Gorakhpur, jaunapur, kannauj, mahoba, devagadh, bithoor aur vindhyaachal hindu evam muslim vaastushilp aur sanskruti ke mahattvapoorn khajaane se bhara hain.
  • uttar pradesh ke gonda jile mein matsyeindranaath (paatan) naamak prasiddh deveepeeth hai.
  • santakabeer nagar jila ke magahar mein santakabeer ki samaadhi aur Sophie nijaamudadeen ki majaar agayaan mein hai. madarasa tanaveeruisalaam amaradobha bhi isi jile mein hai.
  • anya mahatavapoorn sthaan jaise belha devi, ghuisaranaath dhaam, chauharajan devi, belkhaar naath dhaam ityaadi.

kathak

kathak uttar pradesh ka ek parishkrut shaastreeya nrutya hai jo ki hindustaani shaastreeya sangeet ke saath kiya jaata hai. kathak naam 'katha' shabd se bana hai, is nrutya mein nartak kisi kahaani ya samvaad ko nrutya ke maadhyam se prastut karta hai. kathak nrutya ka praarambh 6-7 veen shataabdi mein uttar Bhaarat mein hua tha. praacheen samay mein yeh ek dhaarmik nrutya hua karta tha jismein nartak mahaakaavya gaate the aur abhinay karte the. 13 vi shataabdi tak aate-aate kathak saundaryaparak ho gaya tatha nrutya mein sookshm abhinay evam mudraaon par adhik dhyaan diya jaane laga. kathak mein sookshm mudraaon ke saath thumari gaayan par tabale aur pakhaavaj ke saath taal milaate hue nrutya kiya jaata hai. kathak nrutya ke pramukh kalaakaar pandit birjoo mahaaraaj hain. fari nrutya, jaanghiya nrutya, panvariya nrutya, kaharava, jogira, nirgun, kajari, sohar, chaita gaayan uttar pradesh ki lokasanskrutiyaan hain. lokarang saanskrutik samiti in sanskrutiyon sanvarddhan, sanrakshan ke liye kaaryarat hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

hast shilp

firojaabaad ki choodiyaaain, sahaaranapur ka kaashth shilp, pilkhuva ki haind block print ki chaadarein, Varanasi ki saadiyaaain tatha resham va jri ka kaam, Lucknow ka kapadon par chikn ki kadhaai ka kaam, Rampur ka paichavark, muraadaabaad ke peetal ke baratan Aurangabad ka teraakota, Meerut ki kaichi aadi.jaunapur ki beni saav ki imarati aaur mooli| aajmagadh ki dabangi.

janasankhya

uttar pradesh Bhaarat ka sabse bada (janasankhya ke aadhaar par) raajya hai. kareeb 19 karod ki janasankhya ke saath uttar pradesh vishv ka sarvaadhik aabaadi wala up raashtreeya ikaai hai. vishv mein keval paaainch raashtra cheen, swayam Bhaarat, san॰aaraa॰aaamerika, indoneshiya aur braajeel ki janasankhya pradesh ki janasankhya se adhik hai. uttar pradesh ki rajdhani Lucknow hai.

jile

uttar pradesh mein 75 jile hain -

  • uttar pradesh me ab jilo ki sankhya 75 tatha mandal 18 hai
  • Bhaarat mein sabse adhik janasankhya wala pradesh, uttar pradesh hai.
  • ut‍aatar pradesh se sarvaadhik lok sabha va raajya sabha ke sadas‍aaya chune jaate hain.
  • ut‍aatar pradesh desh ka sabse adhik jilon wala pradesh hai.
  • ut‍aatar pradesh mein kul 403 vidhaanasabha seete hai.
  • ut‍aatar pradesh mein sthit Allahabad uch‍aach n‍aayaayaalaya Asia ka sabse bada uch‍aach n‍aayaayaalaya hai.
  • ut‍aatar pradesh ka sonabhadr jila, desh ka ek maatr aisa jila hai jiski seemaaeain chaar pradeshon ko chhooti hai.

sandarbh

  1. a aa "Population estimate". geoHive.com. 1 July 2008. http://www.geohive.com/cntry/india.aspx. abhigman tithi: 15 August 2008.
  2. kaihoon, ben (2000). "british Bhaarat ke praant". WorldStatesmen.org. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/India_BrProvinces.htm. abhigman tithi: 21 September 2009.
  3. "uttar pradesh ke raajyapaal". Upgov.nic.in. http://www.upgov.nic.in/upinfo/governers.html. abhigman tithi: 21 September 2009.
  4. ben kaihoon. "Indian states sins 1947". Worldstatesmen.org. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/India_states.html. abhigman tithi: 21 September 2009.
  5. http://www.indiaeduinfo.co.in/state/uttar.htm

up me jilo ki sankhya 75 hai

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain