gurda

vrukk
gurde, kidni
 Latin = reen
Gray1120-kidneys.png
maanav vrukk ka prushth bhaag se spaain hataane ke baad ka drushya
Lammnieren.jpg
bhed ki vrukk
gre ki sharee‍aariki subject #253 1215
dhamani vrukk shira
shira vrukk dhamani
tantrika reenal pleksas
emaiesaech {{{MeshNameHindi}}}
dorlainds/elseeviyr gurda

vrukk ya gurde ka joda ek maanav ang hain, jinka pradhaan kaarya mootr utpaadan (rakt shodhan kar) karna hai. gurde bahut se vartibret pashuon mein milte hain. ye mootr-pranaali ke ang hain. inke dvaara ilektrolaait, kshaar-aml santulan aur raktachaap ka niyaaman hota hai. inka mal svarup mootr kahalaata hai. ismein mukhyat: yooriya aur amoniya hote hain.

gurde yugmit ang hote hain, jo kai kaarya karte hain. ye anek prakaar ke pashuon mein paaye jaate hain, jinmein kasheruki va kuchh akasheruki jeev shaamil hain. ye hamaari mootr-pranaali ka ek aavashyak bhaag hain aur ye ilektrolaait niyantran, aml-kshaar santulan, va raktachaap niyantran aadi jaise samasthiti (homeostatic) kaarya bhi karte hai. ye shareer mein rakt ke praakrutik shodhak ke roop mein kaarya karte hain aur apashisht ko hataate hain, jise mootraashaya ki or bhej diya jaata hai. mootr ka utpaadan karte samay, gurde yooriya aur amoniym jaise apashisht padaarth utsarjit karte hain; gurde jal, glookoj aur amino amlon ke punaravashoshan ke liye bhi jimmedaar hote hain. gurde haarmon bhi utpann karte hain, jinmein kailsitriol (calcitriol), renin (renin) aur erithropitin (erythropoietin) shaamil hain.

audarik guha ke pichhle bhaag mein retroperitoniym (retroperitoneum) mein sthit gurde vrukkeeya dhamaniyon ke yugm se rakt praapt karte hain aur ise vrukkeeya shiraaon ke ek jode mein pravaahit kar dete hain. pratyek gurda mootr ko ek mootravaahini mein utsarjit karta hai, jo ki swayam bhi mootraashaya mein rikt hone waali ek yugmit sanrachana hoti hai.

gurde ki kaaryapranaali ke adhyayan ko vrukkeeya shareer vigyaan kaha jaata hai, jabki gurde ki beemaariyon se sambandhit chikitseeya vidha meghavijnyaaan (nephrology) kahalaati hai. gurde ki beemaariyaan vividh prakaar ki hain, lekin gurde se judi beemaariyon ke rogiyon mein aksar vishisht chikitseeya lakshan dikhaai dete hain. gurde se judi aam chikitseeya sthitiyon mein nefraaitik aur nefrotik sindrom, vrukkeeya puti, gurde mein teekshn ghaav, gurde ki deerghakaalik beemaariyaan, mootravaahini mein sankraman, vrukkaashmari aur mootravaahini mein avarodh utpann hona shaamil hain.[1] gurde ke Cancer ke anek prakaar bhi maujood hain; sabse aam vayask vrukk Cancer vrukk koshika karkat (renal cell carcinoma) hai. Cancer, puti aur gurde ki kuchh anya avasthaaon ka prabandhan gurde ko nikaal dene, ya vrukkuchhedan (nephrectomy) ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. jab gurde ka kaarya, jise keshikaaguchheeya shuddhikran dar (glomerular filtration rate) ke dvaara naapa jaata hai, lagaataar buri ho, to daayaalisis aur gurde ka pratyaaropan iske upachaar ke vikalp ho sakte hain. haalaanki, pathari bahut adhik haanikaarak naheen hoti, lekin yeh bhi dard aur samasya ka kaaran ban sakti hai. pathari ko hataane ki prakriya mein dhvani tarangon dvaara upachaar shaamil hai, jisse patthar ko chhote tukadon mein todkar mootraashaya ke raaste baahar nikaal diya jaata hai. kamar ke pichhle bhaag ke madhyavarti/paarshvik khandon mein teekshn dard pathari ka ek aam lakshan hai.

anukram

shareer rachana

avasthiti

manushyon mein, gurde udar guha mein retroperitoniym (retroperitoneum) naamak rikt sthaan mein sthit hote hain. inki sankhya do hoti hai aur inmein se ek-ek gurda merudand ke donon taraf ek sthit hota hai; ve lagbhag T12 se L3 ke merudand star par hote hain.[2] daayaan gurda madhyapat ke theek neeche aur yakrut ke peechhe sthit hota hai, tatha baayaan madhyapat ke neeche aur pleeha ke peechhe hota hai. pratyek gurde ke sheersh par ek adhivrukk granthi hoti hai. yakrut ke kaaran udar guha mein pai jaane waali vishmata ke kaaran daayaan gurda baaen ki tulana mein thoda neeche hota hai aur baayaan gurda daaen ki tulana mein thoda adhik madhyam mein sthit hota hai.[3][4] gurde ke oopari (kapaaleeya) bhaag aanshik roop se gyaarahaveen va baarahaveen pasali dvaara suraksha ki jaati hai aur poora gurda tatha adhivrukk granthi vasa (perireenal va pairaareenal vasa) tatha vrukk patti (renal fascia) dvaara dhanke hote hain. pratyek vayask gurde ka bhaar purushon mein 125 se 170 gram ke beech aur mahilaaon mein 115 se 155 gram ke beech hota hai.[2] vishisht roop se baayaan gurda daaen ki tulana mein thoda bada hota hai.[5]

sanrachana

1.gurde piraamid •a2.antarkhandaatmak dhamaniyon •a3.gurde dhamani •a4.gurde nas 5.vrukkeeya naabhika •a6.vrukkeeya pedoo •a7.mootraashaya •a8.maainar kailyks •a9.reenal kaipsool •a10.avar gurde kaipsool •a11.behtar gurde kaipsool •a12.antarkhandaatmak shiraaon •a13.nefraun •a14.maainar kailyks •a15.pramukh kailyks •a16.gurde papila •a17.gurde stambh

gurde ki sanrachana sem ke aakaar ki hoti hai, pratyek gurde mein avatal aur uttal satahein pai jaati hain. avatal satah, jise vrukkeeya naabhika (renal hilum) kaha jaata hai, vah bindu hai, jahaan se vrukk dhamani is ang mein pravesh karti hai aur vrukk shira tatha mootravaahini baahar niklati hai. gurda sakht reshedaar ootakon, vrukkeeya kaipsool (renal capsule) se ghira hota hai, jo swayam perinefrik (perinephric) vasa, vrukk patti (gerota ki) tatha pairaanefrik vasa se ghiri hoti hai. in ootakon ki agravarti (agali) seema peritoniym hai, jabki pashch (pichhli) seema traansavarsailis patti hai.

daaen gurde ki oopari seema yakruya se sati hui hoti hai; aur baayeen seema pleeha se judi hoti hai. at: saans lene par ye donon hi neeche ki or jaate hain.

gurda lagbhag 11-14 semi lamba, 6 semi chauda aur 3 semi mota hota hai.

gurde ka padaarth, ya jeevitk (parenchyma), do mukhya sanrachanaaon mein vibhkt hota hai: oopari bhaag mein vrukkeeya chhaal (renal cortex) aur iske bheetar vrukkeeya majja (renal medulla) hoti hai. kul milaakar ye sanrachanaaen shanku ke aakaar ke aath se athaarah vrukkeeya khandon ki ek aakruti banaati hain, jinmein se pratyek mein majja ke ek bhaag ko dhankane waali vrukk chhaal hoti hai, jise vrukkeeya piraamid (mailpighi ka) kaha jaata hai.[2] vrukkeeya piraamidon ke beech chhaal ke ubhaar hote hain, jinhein vrukkeeya stambh (bartin ke) kaha jaata hai. nefraun (Nephrons), gurde ki mootr utpann karne waali kaaryaatmak sanrachanaaen, chhaal se lekar majja tak faili hoti hain. ek nefraun ka praarambhik shuddhikran bhaag chhaal mein sthit vrukkeeya kanika (renal corpuscle) hota hai, jiske baad chhaal se hokar majjaatmak piraamidon mein gaharaai tak jaani waali ek vrukkeeya nalika (renal tubule) pai jaati hai. ek majjaatmak kiran, vrukkeeya chhaal ka ek bhaag, vrukkeeya nalikaaon ka ek samooh hota hai, jo ek ekal sangrahan nalika mein jaakar rikt hoti hain.

pratyek piraamid ka sira, ya ankurak (papilla) mootr ko laghu putak (minor calyx) mein pahunchaata hai, laghu putak mukhya putakon (major calyces) mein jaakar rikt hota hai aur mukhya putak vrukkeeya pedoo (renal pelvis) mein rikt hota hai, jo ki mootranalika ban jaati hai.

rakt ki aapoorti

gurde baayeen tatha daahini vrukk dhamaniyon se rakt praapt karte hain, jo seedhe audarik mahaadhamani (abdominal aorta) se niklati hain. apne apekshaakrut chhote aakaar ke baavajood gurde hrudaya se nikalne vaale rakt ka lagbhag 20% bhaag praapt karte hain.[2]

pratyek vrukkeeya dhamani anek khandaatmak dhamaniyon mein vibhaajit ho jaati hai, jo aage antarkhandaatmak dhamaniyon (interlobar arteries) mein bant jaati hain, jo vrukkeeya kaipsool ka chhedan karti hain aur vrukkeeya piraamidon ke beech sthit vrukkeeya stambhon se hokar gujrati hain. iske baad antarkhandaatmak dhamaniyaan chaapaakaar dhamaniyon (arcuate arteries), jo chhaal tatha majja ki seema par hoti hain, ko rakt ki aapoorti karti hain. pratyek chaapaakaar dhamani vibhinn antarkhandaatmak dhamaniyaan pradaan karti hai, jo abhivaahi dhamaniyon ko bharati hain, jo glomeruli ko rakt ki aapoorti karti hain.

intarastitm (interstitum) (ya intarastishiym (interstitium)) gurde mein kaaryaatmak sthaan hai, jo ekal tantuon (keshikaastavak) ke neeche sthit hota hai, jo ki rakt vaahiniyon se paripoorn hote hain. intarastitm mootr se punarpraapt hue drav ko avashoshit kar leta hai. anek sthitiyon ke kaaran is kshetr mein daag-dhabbe ya rakt-sanchaya ho sakta hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop gurde ke kaarya mein baadha utpann ho sakti hai aur yeh kaam karna band bhi kar sakta hai.

shodhan ki prakriya poorn ho jaane par rakt shirikaaon ke ek chhote network se hokar gujrata hai, jo antarkhandaatmak shiraaon ki or abhisran karti hain. shiraaen bhi dhamaniyon jaise vitran paitarn ka hi paalan karti hain, abhivaahi shiraaen chaapaakaar shiraaon ko rakt pradaan karti hain aur fir vahaan se yeh antarkhandaatmak shiraaon ki or jaata hai, jo raktaadhaan ke liye gurde se baahar nikalne waali vrukkeeya shira ka nirmaan karti hain.

ootak-vigyaan

vrukkeeya majja ka sookshm tasveer.
vrukkeeya chhaal ka sookshm tasveer.

vrukkeeya ootak-vigyaan mein gurde ki ek sookshmadarshi ke dvaara dikhaai dene waali sanrachana ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. gurde mein anek vishisht koshika-prakaar paae jaate hain, jinmein nimnalikhit prakaar shaamil hain:

  • gurde ki keshikaastavak paarshvik koshika (Kidney glomerulus parietal cell)
  • gurde ka keshikaastavak podosaait (Kidney glomerulus podocyte)
  • gurde ki sameepasth nalika brash seema koshika (Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell)
  • loops of henle patali khand koshika (Loop of Henle thin segment cell)
  • moti aarohi ang koshika (Thick ascending limb cell)
  • gurde ki doorasth nalika koshika (Kidney distal tubule cell)
  • gurde ki sangrahan nalika koshika (Kidney collecting duct cell)
  • gurde ki intarastisheeyal koshika (Interstitial kidney cell)

abhiprerana

gurda aur snaayu tantr vrukkeeya jaal (renal plexus) ke maadhyam se aapas mein samvaad karte hain, jiske reshe gurde tak pahunchane ke liye vrukkeeya dhamaniyon ke saath jude hote hain.[6] anukanpi snaayu tantr se praapt input gurde mein vaahikaasankeernak (vasoconstriction) ko abhiprerit karta hai, jisse vrukkeeya rakt pravaah mein kami aati hai.[6] aisa maana jaata hai ki gurde sahaanukampi snaayu tantr se input praapt naheen karte.[6] gurde se nikalne vaale sanvedak input merudand ke T10-11 staron ki or badhta hai aur sambandhit antartvacha (dermatome) dvaara mahasoos kiya jaata hai.[6] at: bagal mein mahasoos hone wala dard gurde se sambaddh ho sakta hai.[6]

kaarya

aml-kshaar santulan, ilektrolaait saandrata, koshiketar drav maatra (extracellular fluid volume) ko niyantrit karke aur raktachaap par niyantran rakhate hue gurde poore shareer ke homiyostaisis (homeostasis) mein bhaag lete hain. gurde in homiyostaitik kaaryon ko svatantr roop se va anya angon, vishishtat: ant:sraavi tantr ke angon, ke saath milkar, donon hi prakaar se poorn karte hain. in ant:sraavi kaaryon ki poorti ke liye vibhinn ant:sraavi haarmon ke beech taalamel ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jinmein renin, enjiyotensis II, eldosteron, entidaayayooretik haurmon aur aartiyl naitriyooretik peptaaid aadi shaamil hain.

gurde ke kaaryon mein se anek kaarya nefraun mein hone vaale parishodhan, punaravashoshan aur sraav ki apekshaakrut saral kaaryapranaaliyon ke dvaara poorn kiye jaate hain. parishodhan, jo ki vrukkeeya kanika mein hota hai, ek prakriya hai jiske dvaara koshikaaen tatha bade proteen rakt se chhaane jaate hain aur ek altraafiltret ka nirmaan hota hai, jo antat: mootr banega. gurde ek din mein 180 liter altraafiltret utpann karte hain, jiska ek bahut bada pratishat punaravashoshit kar liya jaata hai aur mootr ki lagbhag 2 liter maatra ki utpann hoti hai. is altraafiltret se rakt mein anuon ka parivhan punaravashoshan kahalaata hai. sraav iski vipreet prakriya hai, jismein anu vipreet disha mein, rakt se mootr ki or bheje jaate hain.

car ke apashisht padaarth utsarjit karte hain. inmein proteen apachaya se utpann naaitrojan-yukt apashisht yooriya aur nyooklik aml ke chayaapachaya se utpann yoorik aml shaamil hain.

paraasaraneeyata niyantran

plaajma paraasaraneeyata (plasma osmolality) mein kisi bhi ullekhaneeya vruddhi ya giraavat ki pehchaan haaipothelemas dvaara ki jaati hai, jo seedhe pichhli shleshameeya granthi se samvaad karta hai. paraasaraneeyata mein vruddhi hone par yeh granthi enteedaayayooretik haarmon (antidiuretic hormone) edeeech (ADH) ka sraav karti hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop gurde dvaara jal ka punaravashoshan kiya jaata hai aur mootr ki saandrata badh jaati hai. ye donon kaarak ek saath kaarya karke plaajma ki paraasaraneeyata ko pun: saamaanya staron par laate hain.

edeeech (ADH) sangrahan nalika mein sthit mukhya koshikaaon se juda hota hai, jo ekvaaporin (aquaporins) ko majja mein sthaanaantarit karta hai, taaki jal saamaanyat: abhedya majja ko chhod sake aur vaasa riyekta (vasa recta) dvaara shareer mein iska punaravashoshan kiya ja sake, jisse shareer mein plaajma ki maatra mein vruddhi hoti hai.

aisi do pranaaliyaan hain, jo atipraasaraneeya majja (hyperosmotic medulla) ka nirmaan karti hain aur is prakaar shareer mein plaajma ki maatra ko badhaati hain: yooriya punarchakran tatha 'ekal prabhaav (single effect).'

yooriya saamaanyat: gurdon se ek apashisht padaarth ke roop mein utsarjit kiya jaata hai. haalaanki, jab plaajma rakt-maatra kam hoti hai aur edeeech (ADH) chhoda jaata hai, to isse khulne vaale ekvaaporins (aquaporins) bhi yooriya ke prati bhedya hote hain. isse yooriya ko ek haaipar sangrahan nalika ko chhodkar majja mein pravesh karke jal ko 'aakarshit' karne vaale ek haaiparausmautik vilyan ka nirmaan karne ka mauka milta hai. iske baad yooriya nefraun mein pun: pravesh kar sakta hai aur is aadhaar par ise pun: utsarjit ya punarchakrit kiya ja sakta hai ki edeeech (ADH) abhi bhi upasthit hai ya naheen.

'ekal prabhaav' is tathya ka varnan karta hai ki loops of henali ka mota aarohi ang jal ke dvaara bhedya naheen hai, lekin bhoo.ni (NaCl) ke dvaara bhedya hai. iska arth yeh hai ki ek prati-pravaahi pranaali nirmit hoti hai, jiske dvaara majja adhik saandrit ban jaati hai aur yadi edeeech (ADH) dvaara sangrahan nalika ko khol diya gaya ho, to jal ke ek paraasaraneeyata anupaat dvaara iska anupaalan kiya jaana chaahiye.

raktachaap ka niyantran

lambi-avadhi mein raktachaap ka niyantran mukhyat: gurde par nirbhar hota hai. mukhyat: aisa koshiketar drav upakhand ke anurakshan ke maadhyam se hota hai, jiska aakar plaajma sodiym saandrata par nirbhar karta hai. haalaanki, gurde seedhe hi raktachaap ka anumaan naheen laga sakte, lekin nefraun ke doorasth bhaagon mein sodiym aur kloraaid ki supurdagi mein parivartan gurde dvaara kiye jaane vaale kinvak renin ke sraav ko parivrtit kar deta hai. jab koshiketar drav upakhand vistaarit ho aur raktachaap uchch ho, to in aayanon ki supurdagi badh jaati hai aur renin ka sraav ghat jaata hai. isi prakaar, jab koshiketar drav upakhand sankuchit ho aur raktachaap nimn ho, to sodiym aur kloraaid ki supurdagi kam ho jaati hai aur pratikriyaasvaroop renin sraav badh jaata hai.

renin un raasaayanik sandeshavaahakon ki shrrunkhala ka pehla sadasya hai, jo milkar renin-enjiyotensin tantr ka nirmaan karte hain. renin mein hone vaale parivartan antat: is tantr ke aautaput, mukhya roop se enjiyotensin II aur eldosteraun, ko parivrtit karte hain. pratyek haarmon anek kaaryapranaaliyon ke maadhyam se kaarya karta hai, lekin donon hi gurde dvaara kiye jaane vaale sodiym kloraaid ke avashoshan ko badhaate hain, jisse koshiketar drav upakhand ka vistaar hota hai aur raktachaap badhta hai. jab renin ke star badhe hue hote hain, to enjiyotensin II aur eldosteraun ki saandrata badh jaati hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop sodiym kloraaid ke punaravashoshan mein vruddhi hoti hai, koshiketar drav upakhand ka vistaar hota hai aur raktachaap badh jaata hai. iske vipreet, jab renin ke star nimn hote hain, to enjiyotensin II aur eldosteraun ke star ghat jaate hain, jisse koshiketar drav upakhand ka sankuchan hota hai aur raktachaap mein kami aati hai.

haarmon sraav

gurde anek prakaar ke haarmon ka sraav karte hain, jinmein erithropeetin, kailsitriol aur renin shaamil hain. erithropeetin ko vrukkeeya pravaah mein haaipauksiya (ootak star par okseejan ka nimn star) ki pratikriya ke roop mein chhoda jaata hai. yeh asthi-majja mein erithropoesis (laal rakt kanikaaon ke utpaadan) ko utprerit karta hai. kailsitriol, vitaamin di ka utprerit roop, kailshiym ke aantr avashoshan tatha fausfet ke vrukkeeya punaravashoshan ko protsaahit karta hai. renin, jo ki renin-enjiotensin-eldosteraun tantr ka ek bhaag hai, eldosteraun staron ke niyantran mein shaamil ek enjaaim hota hai.

vikaas

stanapaayi jeevon mein gurde ka vikaas madhyavarti mesodarm se hota hai. gurde ka vikaas, jise nefrojenesis (nephrogenesis) bhi kaha jaata hai, teen kramik charanon se hokar gujrata hai, jinmein se pratyek ko gurde ke ek adhik unnat jode ke vikaas dvaara chihnit kiya jaata hai: pronafraus (pronephros), mesonefraus (mesonephros) aur metaanefraus (metanephros).[7]

vikaasaatmak anukoolan

vibhinn jaanvaron ke gurde vikaasaatmak anukoolan ke pramaanon ko pradarshit karte hain aur lambe samay se unka adhyayan paaristhitiki-shareer vigyaan (ecophysiology) tatha tulanaatmak shareer vigyaan mein kiya jaata raha hai. gurde ka aakruti vigyaan (Kidney morphology), jise aksar majjaatmak motaai ke roop mein soocheebaddh kiya jaata hai, stanapaayi jeevon ki prajaatiyon mein praakrutik aavaas ke sookhepan se sambandhit hota hai.[8]

shabd vyutpatti

gurde se judi chikitseeya shabdaavaliyaan aamtaur par vrukkeeya (renal) jaise shabdon tatha nefro- (nephro-) upasarg ka prayog karti hain. visheshan vrukkeeya (renal), jiska arth hota hai, vrukk (gurde) se sambandhit, laitin shabd renes (rēaanēaas) se liya gaya hai, jiska arth hai gurde; upasarg nefro- (nephro-) gurde ke liye prayukt praacheen greek shabd nefraus (nephros (νaaεaaφaaρaaόaaς)) se liya gaya hai.[9] udaaharan ke liye, shalyachikitsa ke dvaara gurde ko nikaal dena nefrektaumi (nephrectomy) kahalaata hai, jabki gurde ke kaarya mein kami ko vrukkeeya dushkriya (renal dysfunction) kehte hain.

beemaariyaan evam vikaar

janmajaat

  • janmajaat haaidronefrausis (Congenital hydronephrosis)
  • mootravaahini ka janmajaat avarodh (Congenital obstruction of urinary tract)
  • dohari mootravaahini (Duplicated ureter)
  • ghode ki naal jaisa gurda (Horseshoe kidney)
  • bahuputeeya gurde ki beemaari (Polycystic kidney disease)
  • vrukkeeya anutpatti (Renal agenesis)
  • vrukkeeya durviksan (Renal dysplasia)
  • ekapaksheeya chhota gurda (Unilateral small kidney)
  • bahuputeeya displaastik gurda (Multicystic dysplastic kidney)

praapt

John hantar dvaara ek badhe hue gurda ka aakarshit rekhaachitr
  • madhumeh apavrukkata (Diabetic nephropathy)
  • stavakavrukkashoth (Glomerulonephritis)
  • haaidroforausis (Hydronephrosis) ek ya donon gurdon ka aakaar badhne ko kehte hain, jo ki mootr-pravaah mein avarodh ke kaaran hota hai.
  • aantr vrukkashoth (Interstitial nephritis)
  • pathari (nefrilithiyaasis (nephrolithiasis)) ek apekshaakrut aam aur vishisht roop se dardanaak dushkriya hai.
  • gurde ke arbud (Kidney tumors)
    • vilm arbud (Wilms tumor)
    • vrukkeeya koshika karkat (Renal cell carcinoma)
  • loopas vrukkashoth (Lupus nephritis)
  • nyoonatam parivartan rog (Minimal change disease)
  • nefrautik sindrom mein keshikaastavak kshatigrast ho jaata hai, jisse rakt mein upasthit probhoojin ki ek badi maatra mootr mein pravesh kar jaati hai. nefrautik sindrom ke anya aam lakshanon mein nimn seeram elbyumin (low serum albumin) aur uchch kolesteraul shaamil hain.
  • vrukkagonikaashodh (Pyelonephritis) gurde ka sankraman hai aur aksar yeh mootravaahini ke sankraman mein jatilta badhne par hota hai.
  • vrukkeeya vifalta (Renal failure)
    • teevr vrukkeeya vifalta (Acute renal failure)
    • gurde ki charan 5 ki deerghakaalik beemaari (Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease)

gurde ki vifalta

saamaanyat:, manushya keval ek gurde ke saath bhi saamaanya roop se jeevit rah sakte hain kyonki pratyek mein vrukkeeya ootakon ki sankhya jeevit rahane ke liye aavashyak sankhya se adhik hoti hai. gurde ki deerghakaaleen beemaariyaan keval tabhi viksit hongi, jab gurde ke kaaryaatmak ootakon ki maatra bahut adhik ghat jaae. vrukkeeya pratisthaapan upachaar (Renal replacement therapy), apohan ya gurde ke pratyaaropan ke roop mein, ki aavashyakta tab padti hai, jab glomerular shuddhikran dar bahut kam ho gayi ho ya jab vrukkeeya dushkriya ke lakshan bahut adhik gambhir hon.

anya jeevon mein

ek suar gurde khola.

adhikaansh kasheruki jeevon mein, mesonefraus (mesonephros) ek vayask gurde mein parivrtit ho jaata hai, haalaanki aksar yeh adhik unnat metaanefraus (metanephros) ke saath juda hua hota hai; keval emniot (amniotes) mein mesonefraus bhroon tak seemit hota hai. machhali aur ubhayacharon ke gurde vishisht roop se sankare, lambe ang hote hain, jo dhad ka ek bahut bada bhaag gher lete hain. nefraun ke pratyek jhund ki sangrahan nalikaaen ek aarchinefrik nalika (archinephric duct) mein jaakar rikt hoti hai, jo ki amniot jeevon ke vaas defarens (vas deferens) sadrush hai. haalaanki, yeh sthiti sadaiv hi saral naheen hoti; upaasthism machhaliyon mein aur kuchh ubhayacharon mein, emniyot jeevon mein pai jaane waali mootravaahini ke samaan, ek chhoti nalika hoti hai, jo gurde ke pichhle (metaanefrik) bhaagon ko rikt karti hai aur mootraashaya ya mori (cloaca) par aarchinefrik nalika se jud jaati hai. vastut:, anek vayask upaasthism machhaliyon mein, gurde ka agr bhaag vikrut ho sakta hai ya poori tarah kaarya karna band kar sakta hai.[10]

sarvaadhik aadim kasheruki jeevon, haigafish (hagfish) aur laimpre (Lamprey) mein, gurde ki sanrachana asaadhaaran roop se saral hoti hai: yeh nefraun ki ek pankti se milkar banti hai, jinmein se pratyek seedhe aarchinefrik nalika mein rikt hota hai. akasheruki jeevon mein aise utsarjan ang ho sakte hain, jinka ullekh kabhi-kabhi “agurdon” ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, lekin, yahaan tak ki emfioksas (Amphioxus) mein bhi, ye kabhi bhi kasheruki jeevon ke gurdon ke sadrush naheen hote aur jyaada sahi roop se unke liye anya naamon, jaise nefridiya (nephridia) ka prayog kiya jaata hai.[10]

sareesrupon ke gurde anek khandon se bane hote hain, jo ki mote taur par ek rekheeya paitarn mein vyavasthit hote hain. pratyek khand ke kendra mein mootravaahini ki ek ekal shaakha hoti hai, jismein sangrahan vaahini aakar rikt hoti hai. sareesrupon mein usi aakaar ke anya emniot (amniotes) jeevon ki tulana mein apekshaakrut kam nefraun hote hain, sanbhavat: isaliye kyonki unamein chayaapachaya ki dar nimn hoti hai.[10]

pakshiyon mein apekshaakrut bade, lambe gurde hote hain, jinmein se pratyek teen ya adhik pruthak khandon mein vibhaajit hota hai. ye khand anek chhote, aniyamit roop se vyavasthit khandon se milkar bane hote hain, jinmein se pratyek mootravaahini ki ek shaakha par keindrit hota hai. pakshiyon ke glomeruli ka aakaar chhota hota hai, lekin unamein nefraun ki sankhya stanapaayi jeevon ki tulana mein lagbhag doguni hoti hai.[10]

maanav gurda stanapaayi jeevon ka ek bahut vishisht udaaharan hai. anya kasheruki jeevon ki tulana mein stanapaayi gurde ke vishisht lakshanon mein, vrukkeeya pedoo aur vrukkeeya piraamid ki upasthiti aur ek spasht roop se pahachaane ja sakane waali chhaal aur majja ki upasthiti shaamil hain. baad wala lakshan loops of henle ke bade aakaar ki upasthiti ke kaaran hota hai; pakshiyon mein ye bahut chhote hote hain aur anya kasheruki jeevon mein vastut: ye naheen paaye jaate (haalaanki aksar nefraun mein sanvalit nalikaaon ke beech ek chhota madhyavarti khand hota hai). keval stanapaayi jeevon mein hi gurda apni paaramparik “agurda” aakruti mein hota hai, haalaanki iske kuchh apavaad hain, jaise timivrg ke sadasyon (cetaceans) ke bahu-khandeeya renikyoolet gurde.[10]

itihaas

laitin shabd renes (renes) angreji bhaasha ke shabd “areens (reins)” se sambandhit hai, jo ki sheksapeeyar kaal ki angreji, jo vah kaal bhi hai, jismein King James varjan (King James Version) ka anuvaad hua tha, ki angreji (uda. meri vaaivs of vindasar 3.5 (Merry Wives of Windsor 3.5)) mein gurde ka samaanaarthi shabd hai. ek jmaane mein gurdon ko ant:karan aur chintan ka ek lokapriya sthaan maana jaata tha[11][12] aur baaibil ki anek panktiyaan (uda. PS. (Ps.) 7:9, rev. (Rev.) 2:23) kehti hain ki ishvar manushyon ke gurde ya “avrukk (reins)” ko khojata aur unka nireekshan karta hai. isi prakaar, taalamud (Talmud) (beraakhoth 61.A) (Berakhoth 61.a) kehta hai ki do mein se ek gurda is baat ki salaah deta hai ki kya achha hai aur doosra bataata hai ki kya bura hai.

bhojan ke roop mein pashuon ke gurde ka prayog

haukaarpaana, sveedish suar ka maans aur gurde stoo

jaanvaron ke gurdon ko manushyon dvaara pakaakar khaaya ja sakta hai (anya aantarik angon ke saath).

gurdon ko saamaanyat: bhuna ya tala jaata hai, lekin bahut jatil khaadya-padaarthon mein unhein ek saalan (sauce), jo inke svaad ko badhaaega, ke saath dheemi aanch par pakaaya jaata hai. anek padaarthon, jaise miksad gril (mixed grill) ya myuraav yerushaalmi (Meurav Yerushalmi) mein, gurdon ko maans ya yakrut ke tukadon ke saath milaaya jaata hai. gurde se banane vaale sarvaadhik pratishthit khaadya-padaarthon mein, british steek aur kidni pai (Steak and kidney pie), sveedish haukaarpaana (Höakarpanna) (sooar ka maans aur dheemi aanch par pakaaya gaya gurda), French raugnaus di veeyu saus mautraarde (Rognons de veau sauce moutarde) (raai ke saalan mein bachhade ke gurde) aur spainish “arinauns al jerej (Riñaones al Jerez)” (shairi ke saalan mein dheemi aanch par pakaae gaye gurde), vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain.[13]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • krutrim gurde
  • shroneeya gurde
  • ang daan
  • ang kataai

sandarbh

  1. Cotran, RS S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7216-0187-1.
  2. a aa i E Walter F., PhD. Boron (2004). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-4160-2328-3.
  3. "Kidneys Location Stock Illustration". http://www.indexedvisuals.com/scripts/ivstock/pic.asp?id=118-100.
  4. http://www.bioportfolio.com/indepth/Kidney.html
  5. Glodny B, Unterholzner V, Taferner B, et al. (2009). "Normal kidney size and its influencing factors - a 64-slice MDCT study of 1.040 asymptomatic patients". BMC Urology 9: 19. doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-19. PMC 2813848. PMID 20030823. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/9/19.
  6. a aa i E u Bard, Johnathan; Vize, Peter D.; Woolf, Adrian S. (2003). The kidney: from normal development to congenital disease. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 154. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-12-722441-6. http://books.google.com/?id=ctOm-cPwo60C&pg=PA154.
  7. Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (3rd san॰). Saint Louis: Mosby. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-323-03649-X.
  8. Al-kahtani, M. A.; C. Zuleta, E. Caviedes-Vidal, and T. Garland, Jr. (2004). "Kidney mass and relative medullary thickness of rodents in relation to habitat, body size, and phylogeny". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77 (3): 346–365. doi:10.1086/420941. PMID 15286910. http://www.biology.ucr.edu/people/faculty/Garland/Al-kahtaniEA2004.pdf.
  9. Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-13-981176-1.
  10. a aa i E u Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 367–376. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-03-910284-X.
  11. paul raamase dvaara the pesheint aij parsan: eksaploreshan in medical ethiks . prushth 60, maargaret faarle, elbart jaunasen, vileeyam ऍf. meya (2002)
  12. history of nefrolauji 2 prushth 235 history of nefrolauji kaaaingres ke liye intaranaishanal association, gaaraabed eknoyan, spairos ji. maarkets, nataale ji. de sainto - 1997; American journal of nefrolauji, vi. 14, nan. 4-6, 1994.
  13. rognons daanas les resetas (French)

baahari links