bhaarateeya sansad

bhaarateeya sansad
राज्य-चिह्न या लोगो
prakaar
sadan prakaar dvisdaneeya vyavastha
sadan raajya sabha
lok sabha
netrutv
raajya sabha ke adhyaksh mohammad haamid Ansari, svatantr
21 August 2012se
bahumat party neta (raajya sabha) pradhaan mantri
Narendra Modi, (bhaajapa)
2014se
lok sabha
adhyaksh
sumitra mahaajan
2014se
seatein 802
250 (raajya sabha) aur 545 (Loksabha)
vidhaan sabha satr bhavan
New Delhi government block 03-2016 img3.jpg
sansad bhavan
website
parliamentofindia.nic.in
sansad bhavan

sansad (parliament) Bhaarat ka sarvoch‍aach vidhaayi nikaaya hai. yeh dvisdaneeya vyavastha hai. bhaarateeya sansad mein raash‍aatrapati tatha do sadan- Loksabha (logon ka sadan) evam Rajyasabha (raaj‍aayon ki parishad) hote hain. raash‍aatrapati ke paas sansad ke donon mein se kisi bhi sadan ko bulaane ya s‍aathagit karne athva Loksabha ko bhang karne ki shakti hai. bhaarateeya sansad ka sanchaalan 'sansad bhavan' mein hota hai. jo ki nai Delhi mein sthit hai.

lok sabha mein raashtra ki janta dvaara chune hue pratinidhi hote hain jinki adhiktam sankhya 552 hai. raajya sabha ek sthaayi sadan hai jismein sadasya sankhya 250 hai. raajya sabha ke sadasyon ka nirvaachan / manonayan 6 varsh ke liye hota hai. jiske 1/3 sadasya pratyek 2 varsh mein sevaanivrutt hote hai.

anukram

parichay

Bhaarat ki raajaneetik v‍aayas‍aatha ko, ya sarkaar jis prakaar banti aur chalti hai, use sansadeeya lokatantr kaha jaata hai.

gram-panchaayatein hamaare jan-jeevan ka abhin‍aan ang rahi hai. puraane samay mein gaaainvo ki panchaayat chunaav se gathit ki jaati thi. use n‍aayaaya aur v‍aayavas‍aatha, donon hi kshetron mein khooba‍ adhikaar mile hue the. panchaayaton ke sadas‍aayon ka raajadarabaar mein bada aadar hota tha. yahi panchaayatein bhoomi ka bantavaara karti theen. kar vasool karti theen. gaaainv ki or se sarkaar kar ka his‍aasa deti theen. kaheen kaheen kai gram-panchaayaton ke oopar ek badi panchaayat bhi hoti thi. yeh un par nigraani aur niyantran rakhati thi. kuchh puraane shilaalekh yeh bhi bataate hain ki gram-panchaayaton ke sadas‍aaya kis prakaar chune jaate the. sadas‍aaya banane ke liye jaroori gunon aur chunaavon mein mahilaaon ki bhaageedaari ke niyam bhi is par likhe the. ach‍aachha aacharan na karne par athva raajakeeya dhan ka theek theek hisaab na kar paane par koi bhi sadas‍aaya pad se hataaya ja sakta tha. padon par kisi bhi sadas‍aaya ka koi nikat-sambandhi niyuk‍aat naheen kiya ja sakta tha.

madh‍aaya yug mein aakar sansad sabha aur samiti jaisi sans‍aathaaen gaayab ho gain. oopar ke s‍aatar par lokatantraat‍aamak sans‍aathaaon ka vikaas rook gaya. saikadon varshon tak ham aapasi ladaaiyon mein ulajhe rahe. videshiyon ke aakraman par aakraman hote rahe. senaaen haarati-jeetati raheen. shaasak badalate rahe. ham videshi shaasan ki gulaami mein bhi jakade rahe. sindh se asam tak aur kash‍aameer se kan‍aayaakumaari tak, panchaayat sans‍aathaaen baraabar chalti raheen. ye praadeshik janapad parishd nagar parishad, paur sabha, gram sabha, gram sangh jaise alag naamon se pukaari jaati raheen. sach mein ye panchaayatein hi gaanvon ki 'sansad' theen.

san 1883 ke chaartar adhiniyam mein pehli baar ek vidhaan parishad ke beej dikhaai pade. 1853 ke antim chaartar adhiniyam ke dvaara vidhaayi paarshad shab‍aadon ka prayog kiya gaya. yeh nayi kaunsil shikaayaton ki jaanch karne waali aur un‍aahein door karne ka prayat‍aan karne waali sabha jaisa roop dhaaran karne lagi.

1857 ki aajaadi ke liye pehli ladaai ke baad 1861 ka bhaarateeya kaunsil adhiniyam bana. is adhiniyam ko 'bhaarateeya vidhaanamandal ka pramukh ghoshanaapatr' kaha gaya. jiske dvaara 'Bhaarat mein vidhaayi adhikaaron ke antaran ki pranaali' ka udaghaatan hua. is adhiniyam dvaara keindreeya evam praanteeya s‍aataron par vidhaan banaane ki v‍aayavas‍aatha mein mahat‍aavapoorn parivartan kiye gaye. angreji raaj ke Bhaarat mein jamane ke baad pehli baar vidhaayi nikaayon mein gair-sarkaari logon ke rakhane ki baat ko maana gaya.

1860 aur 1870 ke dashako se hi bhaarateeyon mein raajaneetik chetna panapane lagi thi. 1870 ke ant mein 1880 ke dashak ke shuroo mein bhaarateeya janamaanas raajaneetik roop se kaafi jaagruk ho chuka tha. 1885 mein is raajaneetik chetna ne karvat badli. bhaarateeya raajaneetik aur raajaneeti mein sakriya buddhijeevi, raashtreeya hiton ke liye raashtreeya star par sangharsh karne ke liye ek sangathan ki jaroorat mahasoos kiye . isi kadi mein e॰aao॰aahyoom ne bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ki s‍aathaapana 1885 mein ki taaki kaunsil mein sudhaar kar sake. british sansad ne 'vidhaan parishdon mein Bhaarat ki janta ko vaas‍aatav mein pratinidhit‍aav dene' ke liye Indian kaunsil‍aaj adhiniyam 1892 ko s‍aaveekaar kiya. 1919 mein sudhaar adhiniyam aur uske adheen kai niyam banaae gaye. jinke kaaran kendra mein, bhaarateeya vidhaan parishad ke s‍aathaan par dvisdaneeya vidhaanamandal banaaya gaya. jismein ek thi raaj‍aaya parishad aur doosra thi vidhaan sabha. prat‍aayek sadan mein adhikaansh sadas‍aayon ka chunaav hota tha. pehli vidhaan sabha varsh 1921 mein gathit hui thi. uske kul 145 sadas‍aaya the. 104 nirvaachit, 26 sarkaari sadas‍aaya aur 15 manoneet gair-sarkaari sadas‍aaya.

sansad bhavan

1923 mein, deshabandhu chitranjan das aur pandit Motilal Nehru ne s‍aavaraaj party banaai. ve sochate the ki 'shatru ke camp' mein ghuskar v‍aayavas‍aatha ko todne ke liye parishdon mein s‍aathaan banaaya jaae. iske liye chunaav mein bhaag liya gaya. s‍aavaraaj party ko 1923 ke chunaavon mein bahut safalta mili. s‍aavaraaj party ne 145 s‍aathaanon mein se 45 s‍aathaan jeete. party keindreeya vidhaanamandal mein thi.

keindreeya vidhaan sabha ke nae chunaav mein Congress 1942 ke 'Bhaarat chhodo' pras‍aataav ko lekar lada. chunaavon mein Congress ko 102 mein se 56 seatein mileen. Congress vidhaayak dal ke neta sharat chan‍aadr Bose the. bhaarateeya s‍aavatantrata adhiniyam 1947 ke adheen kuchh parivartan hue. 1935 ke adhiniyam ke ve upabandh kaam ke naheen rah gaye jinke tahat Governor-general ya Governor apne vivekaadhikaar ke anusaar athva apne v‍aayak‍aatigt vichaar ke anusaar kaarya kar sakta tha.

bhaarateeya s‍aavatantrata adhiniyam, 1947 mein Bhaarat ki samvidhaan sabha ko poorn prabhusatta sanpan‍aan nikaaya ghoshit kiya gaya. 14-15 agas‍aat 1947 ki madh‍aaya raatri ko us sabha ne desh ka shaasan chalaane ki poorn shak‍aatiyaan grahan kar leen. adhiniyam ki dhaara 8 ke dvaara samvidhaan sabha ko poorn vidhaayi shak‍aati praap‍aat ho gayi. kintu saath hi yeh anubhav kiya gaya ki samvidhaan sabha ke samvidhaan-nirmaan ke kaarya tatha vidhaanamandal ke roop mein iske saadhaaran kaarya mein bhed banaae rakhana jaroori hoga.

samvidhaan sabha (vidhaayi) ki ek alag nikaaya ke roop mein pehli baithak 17 November 1947 ko hui. iske adh‍aayaksh sabha ke pradhaan dau॰ raajen‍aadr prasaad the. samvidhaan adh‍aayaksh pad ke liye keval shri ji.vi. maavalankar ka ek hi naam praap‍aat hua tha. isliye un‍aahein vidhivt chuna hua ghoshit kiya gaya. 14 November 1948 ko samvidhaan ka praaroop samvidhaan sabha mein praaroop samiti ke sabhaapati bee॰aaara॰ am‍aabedakar ne pesh kiya. pras‍aataav ke paksh mein bahumat tha. 26 January 1950 ko s‍aavatantr Bhaarat ke ganaraaj‍aaya ka samvidhaan laagoo ho gaya. iske kaaran aadhunik sans‍aathaagat dhaanche aur usaki an‍aaya sab shaakha-prashaakhaaon sahit poorn sansadeeya pranaali s‍aathaapit ho gayi. samvidhaan sabha Bhaarat ki as‍aathaayi sansad ban gayi. vayas‍aak mataadhikaar ke aadhaar par pehle aam chunaavon ke baad nae samvidhaan ke upabandhon ke anusaar sansad ka gathan hone tak isi prakaar kaarya karti rahi.

nae samvidhaan ke tahat pehle aam chunaav varsh 1951-52 mein hue. pehli chuni hui sansad jiske do sadan the, Rajyasabha aur Loksabha May, 1952 mein bani; doosari lok sabha May 1957 mein bani; teesari April 1962 mein; chauthi March 1967 mein; paanchavi maach 1971 mein; 6 March 1977 mein; saataveen January 1980 mein; 8 January 1985 mein; naveen December 1989 mein, dasveen June 1991 aur g‍aayaarahaveen 1996 mein bani. 1952 mein pehli baar gathit Rajyasabha ek nirantar rahane wala, s‍aathaayi sadan hai. jiska kabhi vightan naheen hota. har do varsh iske ek-tihaai sadas‍aaya avakaash grahan karte hain.

sansad ki bhoomika

bhaarateeya lokatantr mein sansad janta ki sarvoch‍aach pratinidhi sans‍aatha hai. isi maadh‍aayam se aam logon ki samprabhuta ko abhiv‍aayak‍aati milti hai. sansad hi is baat ka pramaan hai ki hamaari raajaneetik v‍aayavas‍aatha mein janta sabse oopar hai, janamat sarvopari hai.

'sansadeeya' shab‍aad ka arth hi aisi lokatantraat‍aamak raajaneetik v‍aayavas‍aatha hai jahaaain sarvoch‍aach shak‍aati logon ke pratinidhiyon ke us nikaaya mein nihit hai jise 'sansad' kehte hain. Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke adheen sangheeya vidhaanamandal ko 'sansad' kaha jaata hai. yeh vah dhuri hai, jo desh ke shaasan ki neenv hai. bhaarateeya sansad raash‍aatrapati aur do sadanon—aaraajyasabha aur lokasabhaa—aase milkar banti hai.

raash‍aatrapati

vaise to Bhaarat ka raash‍aatrapati sansad ka ang hota hai, fir bhi vah donon mein se kisi bhi sadan mein na to baithata hai, na hi usaki charchaaon mein bhaag leta hai. raash‍aatrapati samay samay par sansad ke donon sadanon ko baithak ke liye aamantrit karta hai. donon sadanon dvaara paas kiya gaya koi vidheyak tabhi kaanoon ban sakta hai jab raash‍aatrapati us par apni anumati pradaan kar de. itna hi naheen, jab sansad ke donon sadanon ka adhiveshan na chal raha ho aur raash‍aatrapati ko mahasoos ho ki in paris‍aathitiyon mein turant kaaryavaahi jaroori hai to vah adh‍aayaadesh jaari kar sakta hai. is adh‍aayaadesh ki shak‍aati evam prabhaav vahi hota hai jo sansad dvaara paas ki gayi vidhi ka hota hai.

Loksabha ke liye prat‍aayek aam chunaav ke pash‍aachaat adhiveshan ke shuroo mein aur har saal ke pehle adhiveshan ke praarambh mein raash‍aatrapati ek saath sansad ke donon sadanon ke saamane abhibhaashan karta hai. vah sadanon ki baithak bulaane ke kaaranon ki sansad ko soochana deta hai. iske alaava vah sansad ke kisi ek sadan ‍aathva ek saath donon ke samaksh abhibhaashan kar sakta hai. iske liye vah sadas‍aayon ki upas‍aathiti ki apeksha kar sakta hai. use sansad mein us samay lambit kisi vidheyak ke sambandh mein sandesh ya koi an‍aaya sandesh kisi bhi sadan ko bhejane ka adhikaar hai. jis sadan ko koi sandesh is prakaar bheja gaya ho vah sadan us sandesh mein likhe vishay par suvidhaanusaar sheeghrata se vichaar karta hai. kuchh prakaar ke vidheyak raash‍aatrapati ki sifaarish praap‍aat karne ke baad hi pesh kiye ja sakte hain athva un par aage koi kaaryavaahi ki ja sakti hai.

Rajyasabha

jaisa ki iske naam se pata chalta hai, Rajyasabha raaj‍aayon ki parishad hai. yeh aprat‍aayaksh reeti se logon ka pratinidhit‍aav karti hai. Rajyasabha ke sadas‍aaya ka chunaav raaj‍aaya vidhaan sabhaaon ke chune hue vidhaayak karte hain. prat‍aayek raaj‍aaya ke pratinidhiyon ki sankh‍aaya j‍aayaadaatar usaki janasankh‍aaya par nirbhar karti hai. is prakaar, uttar pradesh ke Rajyasabha mein 34 sadas‍aaya hain. manipur, mijoram, sik‍aakim, tripura aadi chhote raaj‍aayon ke keval ek ek sadas‍aaya hain. Rajyasabha mein 250 tak sadas‍aaya ho sakte hain. inmein raash‍aatrapati dvaara manoneet 12 sadas‍aaya tatha 238 raaj‍aayon aur sangh-raaj‍aaya kshetron dvaara chune sadas‍aaya hote hain. is samay Rajyasabha ke 245 sadas‍aaya hain. Rajyasabha ke prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ki kaaryaavadhi chhah varsh hai. uparaash‍aatrapati, sansad ke donon sadanon ke sadas‍aayon dvaara nirvaachit kiya jaata hai. vah Rajyasabha ka paden sabhaapati hota hai. upasabhaapati pad ke liye Rajyasabha ke sadas‍aayon dvaara apne mein se kisi sadas‍aaya ko chuna jaata hai.

lok sabha

lok sabha ke sadas‍aayon ka chunaav janta dvaara seedhe vote daalkar kiya jaata hai. 18 saal aur usase adhik aayu ka har ek bhaarateeya naagrik matadaan karne ka hakdaar hoga. lok sabha ke adhiktam 530 sadas‍aaya raaj‍aayon se chunaav kshetron ki prat‍aayaksh reeti se chune jaaenge. adhiktam 20 sadas‍aaya sangh raaj‍aaya kshetron ka pratinidhitv kareinge. iske atirik‍aat, raash‍aatrapati aang‍aal-bhaarateeya samudaaya ka pratinidhit‍aav karne ke liye do se anadhik sadas‍aaya manoneet kar sakta hai. is prakaar sadan ki adhiktam sadas‍aaya sankh‍aaya 552 ho, aisi samvidhaan mein parikl‍aapana ki gayi hai. lok sabha mein anusoochit jaatiyon tatha anusoochit janajaatiyon ke liye janasankh‍aaya-anupaat ke aadhaar par s‍aathaan aarakshit hai. aarambh mein yeh aarakshan das varsh ke liye tha. naveenatam sanshodhan ke antargat ab yeh pachaas varsh ke liye arthaat san 2000 tak ke liye hai. Bhaarat mein sadan ki kaaryaavadhi paaainch varshon ki hai. paaainch varshon ki avadhi samaap‍aat ho jaane par sadan khud bhang ho jaata hai. kuchh paris‍aathatiyon mein sansad ko poorn kaaryaavadhi samaap‍aat hone se pehle hi bhang kiya ja sakta hai. aapaatakaal ki s‍aathati mein sansad lok sabha ki kaaryaavadhi badha sakti hai. yeh ek baar mein ek varsh se adhik naheen ho sakti.

sansad ke donon sadanon ko, kuchh maamalon ko chhodkar sabhi kshetron mein samaan shak‍aatiyaan evam darja praap‍aat hai. koi bhi gair-vitteeya vidheyak adhiniyam banane se pehle donon mein se prat‍aayek sadan dvaara paas kiya jaana aavash‍aayak hai. raash‍aatrapati par mahaabhiyog chalaane, uparaash‍aatrapati ko hataane, samvidhaan mein sanshodhan karne aur uch‍aachatam n‍aayaayaalaya evam uch‍aach n‍aayaayaalayon ke n‍aayaayaadheeshon ko hataane jaise mahat‍aavapoorn maamalon mein Rajyasabha ko lok sabha ke samaan shak‍aatiyaan praap‍aat hai. raash‍aatrapati ke adh‍aayaadeshon, aapaat ki udaghoshana aur kisi raaj‍aaya mein samvaidhaanik v‍aayavas‍aatha ke vifal ho jaane ki udaghoshana aur kisi raaj‍aaya mein samvaidhaanik v‍aayavas‍aatha ke vifal ho jaane ki udaghoshana ko sansad ke donon sadanon ke samaksh rakhana anivaarya hai. kisi dhan vidheyak aur samvidhaan sanshodhan vidheyak ko chhodkar an‍aaya kisi bhi vidheyak par donon sadanon ke beech asahamati ko donon sadanon dvaara sanyuk‍aat baithak mein door kiya jaata hai. is baithak mein maamale bahumat dvaara tay kiye jaate hain. donon sadanon ki aisi baithak ka peethaaseen adhikaari Loksabha ka adh‍aayaksh hota hai.

sansad aur sarkaar

Bhaarat mein pradhaanamantri aur mantri donon sadanon mein se kisi bhi ek ka sadas‍aaya ho sakte hain. kisi aise v‍aayak‍aati ko bhi pradhaanamantri ya mantri niyuk‍aat kiya ja sakta hai jo sansad ke kisi bhi sadan ka sadas‍aaya na ho, parantu use chhah maas ke pash‍aachaat pad chhodna padta hai, yadi is beech, vah donon mein se kisi sadan ke liye nirvaachit na ho jaae. mantriprishd saamoohik roop se lok sabha ke prati uttaradaayi hai. ant: uske liye yeh jaroori hai ki lok sabha ka vish‍aavaas khote hi pad-t‍aayaag kar dein.

sansadeeya shaasan ka arth hona chaahiye sansad dvaara shaasan. kintu sansad s‍aavayan shaasan naheen karti aur na hi kar sakti hai. mantriprishd ke baare mein ek tarah se kaha ja sakta hai ki yeh sansad ki mahaan kaaryapaalika samiti hoti hai. jise mool nikaaya ki or se shaasan karne ka uttaradaayit‍aav saunpa jaata hai. sansad ka kaarya vidhaan banaana, mantrana dena, aalochna karna aur logon ki shikaayaton ko v‍aayak‍aat karna hai. kaaryapaalika ka kaarya shaasan karna hai, yadyapi vah sansad ki or se hi shaasan karti hai.

sansad sadas‍aayon ka chunaav

Bhaarat jaise bade aur bhaari janasankh‍aaya vaale desh mein chunaav karaana ek bahut bada kaam hai. sansad ke donon sadanon- Loksabha aur Rajyasabha- ke liye chunaav berokatok aur nish‍aapaksh hon, iske liye ek s‍aavatantr chunaav (nirvaachan) aayog banaaya gaya hai.

lok sabha ke liye saamaan‍aaya chunaav jab usaki kaaryavadhi samaap‍aat hone waali ho ya uske bhang kiye jaane par karaae jaate hain. Bhaarat ka prat‍aayek naagrik jo 18 varsh ka ya usase adhik ho matadaan ka adhikaari hai. Loksabha ka chunaav ladne ke liye kam se kam aayu 25 varsh hai aur Rajyasabha ke liye 30 varsh.

Rajyasabha

Rajyasabha ke sadas‍aaya raaj‍aayon ke logon ka pratinidhit‍aav karte hain. inka chunaav raaj‍aaya ki vidhaan sabha ke chune hue sadas‍aayon dvaara hota hai. Rajyasabha mein s‍aathaan bharne ke liye raash‍aatrapati, chunaav aayog dvaara sujhaai gayi taareekh ko, adhisoochana jaari karta hai. jis tithi ko sevaanivrutt hone vaale sadas‍aayon ki padaavadhi samaap‍aat honi ho usase teen maas se adhik samay se poorv aisi adhisoochana jaari naheen ki jaati. chunaav adhikaari, chunaav aayog ke anumodan se matadaan ka s‍aathaan nirdhaarit aur adhisoochit karta hai.

lok sabha

nayi lok sabha ke chunaav ke liye raash‍aatrapati, raajapatr mein prakaashit adhisoochana dvaara, chunaav aayog dvaara sujhaai gayi tithi ko, sabhi sansadeeya nirvaachan kshetron se sadas‍aaya chunane ke liye kehta hai. adhisoochana jaari kiye jaane ke pash‍aachaat chunaav aayog naamaankan patra daayar karne, unki chhaanabeen karne, un‍aahein vaapas lene aur matadaan ke liye tithiyaan nirdhaarit karta hai.

lok sabha ke liye prat‍aayaksh chunaav hone ke kaaran Bhaarat ke raaj‍aaya kshetr ko upayuk‍aat praadeshik nirvaachan kshetron mein baanta jaata hai. prat‍aayek sansadeeya nirvaachan kshetr se ek sadas‍aaya ko chuna jaata hai.

s‍aathaan khaali ho jaana

yadi ek sadan ka koi sadas‍aaya doosare sadan ke liye bhi chun liya jaata hai to pehle sadan mein usaka s‍aathaan us tithi se khaali ho jaata hai jab vah an‍aaya sadan ke liye chuna gaya ho. isi prakaar, yadi vah kisi raaj‍aaya vidhaanamandal ke sadas‍aaya ke roop mein bhi chun liya jaata hai to, yadi vah raaj‍aaya vidhaanamandal mein apne s‍aathaan se, raaj‍aaya ke raajapatr mein ghoshana ke prakaashan se 14 dinon ke bheetar, t‍aayaagapatr naheen de deta to, sansad ka sadas‍aaya naheen rahata. yadi koi sadas‍aaya, sadan ki anumati ke bina 60 din ki avadhi tak sadan ki kisi baithak mein upas‍aathit naheen hota to vah sadan uske s‍aathaan ko rik‍aat ghoshit kar sakta hai. iske alaava, kisi sadas‍aaya ko sadan mein apna s‍aathaan rik‍aat karna padta hai yadi

  • (1) vah laabh ka koi pad dhaaran karta hai,
  • (2) use vikrut chitt wala v‍aayak‍aati ya divaaliya ghoshit kar diya jaata hai,
  • (3) vah s‍aavech‍aachha se kisi videshi raaj‍aaya ki naagarikta praap‍aat kar leta hai,
  • (4) usaka nirvaachan n‍aayaayaalaya dvaara shoon‍aaya ghoshit kar diya jaata hai,
  • (5) vah sadan dvaara nish‍aakaasan ka pras‍aataav s‍aaveekrut kiye jaane par nish‍aakaasit kar diya jaata hai ya
  • (6) vah raash‍aatrapati ya kisi raaj‍aaya ka raaj‍aayapaal chun liya jaata hai.

yadi kisi sadas‍aaya ko samvidhaan ki dasveen anusoochi ke upabandho ke antargat dal-badal ke aadhaar par ayog‍aaya siddh kar diya gaya ho, to us s‍aathiti mein bhi usaki sadas‍aayata samaap‍aat ho sakti hai.

chunaav sambandhi vivaad

sansad ke ya kisi raaj‍aaya vidhaanamandal ke kisi sadan ke liye hue kisi chunaav ko chunauti uch‍aach-n‍aayaayaalaya mein di ja sakti hai. yaachika chunaav ke dauraan koi bhrash‍aat prakriya apnaane ke kaaran pesh ki ja sakti hai. yadi siddh ho jaae to uch‍aach n‍aayaayaalaya ko yeh shak‍aati praap‍aat hai ki vah safal um‍aameedavaar ka chunaav shoon‍aaya ghoshit kar de. prabhaavit paksh ko uch‍aach n‍aayaayaalaya ke aadesh ke virooddh uch‍aachatam n‍aayaayaalaya mein appeal karne ka adhikaar hai.

sansad ke satr aur baithakein

lok sabha prat‍aayek aam chunaav ke baad chunaav aayog dvaara adhisoochana jaari kiye jaane par gathit hoti hai. lok sabha ki pehli baithak shapath vidhi ke saath shuroo hoti hai. iske nav nirvaachit sadas‍aaya 'Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke prati shraddha aur nish‍aatha rakhane ke liye', 'Bhaarat ki prabhuta aur akhandata akshun‍aan rakhane ke liye' aur 'sansad sadas‍aaya ke kartav‍aayon ka shraddhaapoorvak nirvahan karne ke liye' shapath lete hain.

raash‍aatrapati dvaara aamantran

raash‍aatrapati samay samay par sansad ke prat‍aayek sadan ko baithak ke liye aamantrit karta hai. prat‍aayek adhiveshan ki antim tithi ke baad raash‍aatrapati ko chhah maas ke bheetar aagaami adhiveshan ke liye sadanon ko baithak ke liye aamantrit karna hota hai. yadyapi sadanon ko baithak ke liye aamantrit karne ki shak‍aati raash‍aatrapati mein nihit hai tathaapi v‍aayavahaar mein is aashay ke pras‍aataav ki pahal sarkaar dvaara ki jaati hai.

sansad ke satr

saamaan‍aayat: prativrsh sansad ke teen satr ya adhiveshan hote hain. yatha bajat adhiveshan (February-May), monsoon adhiveshan (July-August) aur sheetakaaleen adhiveshan (November-December). kintu, Rajyasabha ke maamale mein, bajat ke adhiveshan ko do adhiveshanon mein vibhaajit kar diya jaata hai. in do adhiveshanon ke beech teen se chaar sap‍aataah ka avakaash hota hai. is prakaar Rajyasabha ke ek varsh mein chaar adhiveshan hote hain. raash‍aatrapati ka abhibhaashan

nav nirvaachit sadas‍aayon ki shapath ke baad adh‍aayaksh ka chunaav hota hai. iske baad, raash‍aatrapati sansad bhavan ke keindreeya kaksh mein ek saath sansad ke donon sadanon ke samaksh abhibhaashan karta hai.

raash‍aatrapati ka abhibhaashan bahut mahat‍aavapoorn avsar hota hai. abhibhaashan mein aisi neetiyon evam kaaryakramon ka vivran hota hai jin‍aahein aagaami varsh mein kaaryaroop dene ka vichaar ho. saath hi, pehle varsh ki usaki gatividhiyon aur safalataaon ki sameeksha bhi di jaati hai. vah abhibhaashan choonki sarkaar ki neeti ka vivran hota hai ant: sarkaar dvaara taiyaar kiya jaata hai. abhibhaashan par charcha bahut v‍aayaapak roop se hoti hai. dhan‍aayavaad pras‍aataav ke sanshodhanon ke dvaara un maamalon par bhi charcha ho sakti hai jinka abhibhaashan mein vishesh roop se ul‍aalekh na ho.

adh‍aayaksh/upaadh‍aayaksh ka chunaav

lok sabha sadan ke do sadas‍aayon ko adh‍aayaksh aur upaadh‍aayaksh ke roop mein chunati hai. kuchh aisi parampara bani hai ki upaadh‍aayaksh vipaksh ke sadas‍aayon mein se chuna jaata hai. praay: yeh koshish rahati hai ki adh‍aayaksh aur upaadh‍aayaksh tatha Rajyasabha mein sabhaapati aur upasabhaapati ka yeh kaam hai ki ve apne sadan ki kaaryavaahi ko v‍aayavas‍aathit dhang se niyamon ke anusaar chalaaen.

kaaryakram aur prakriya

sansadeeya kaarya do mukh‍aaya sheershon mein baanta ja sakta hai. sarkaari kaarya aur gair-sarkaari kaarya. sarkaari kaarya ko fir do shreniyon mein baanta ja sakta hai,

  • (k) aise kaarya jinki shurooaat sarkaar dvaara ki jaati hai, aur
  • (kh) aise kaarya jinki shurooaat gair-sarkaari sadas‍aayon dvaara ki jaati hai parantu jin‍aahein sarkaari kaarya ke samay mein liya jaata hai jaise prash‍aan, s‍aathagan pras‍aataav, avilanbaneeya lok mahat‍aav ke maamalon ki or dh‍aayaan dilaana, visheshaadhikaar ke prash‍aan, avilanbaneeya lok mahat‍aav ke maamalon par charcha, mantriprishd mein avish‍aavaas ka pras‍aataav, prash‍aanon ke uttaron se ut‍aapan‍aan hone vaale maamalon par aadhe ghante ki charchaaen it‍aayaadi.

gair-sarkaari sadas‍aayon ke kaarya, arthaat vidheyakon aur sankal‍aapon par prat‍aayek shukravaar ke din ya kisi aise din jo adh‍aayaksh nirdhaarit kare dhaai ghante tak charcha ki jaati hai. sadan mein kiye jaane vaale vibhin‍aan kaaryon ke liye samay ki sifaarish saamaan‍aayat: kaarya mantrana samiti dvaara ki jaati hai. praaya: har sap‍aataah ek baithak hoti hai.

sansad ke donon sadanon ki kaaryavaahi ki chhapi hui pratiyaan saamaan‍aayat: baithak ke baad ek maas ke andar upalab‍aadh kara di jaati hain. kaaryavaahi ko tape rikaard kiya jaata hai. vaad vivaad ke adhiveshanavaar chhape hue khand hindi tatha angreji bhaasha mein upalab‍aadh hote hain.

sansad ke kaarya ka sanchaalan karne ki bhaashaaen hindi tatha angreji hain. kintu peethaaseen adhikaari aise sadas‍aaya ko, jo hindi ya angreji mein apni paryaap‍aat abhiv‍aayak‍aati naheen kar sakta ho, apni maatru-bhaasha mein sansad ko sambodhit karne ki anumati de sakte hain. donon sadanon mein 12 bhaashaaon ko hindi tatha angreji mein saath saath bhaashaantar karne ki suvidhaaen upalab‍aadh hain.

sansad mein prash‍aan poochhana

sarkaar apni prat‍aayek bhool chook ke liye sansad ke prati aur sansad ke dvaara logon ke pra‍aati uttaradaayi hoti hai. sadan ke sadas‍aaya is adhikaar ka prayog, an‍aaya baaton ke saath saath, sansadeeya prash‍aanon ke maadh‍aayam se karte hain. sansad sadas‍aayon ko lok mahat‍aav ke maamalon par sarkaar ke mantriyon se jaankaari praap‍aat karne ke liye poochhane ka adhikaar hota hai. jaankaari praap‍aat karna prat‍aayek gair-sarkaari sadas‍aaya ka sansadeeya adhikaar hai. sansad sadas‍aaya ke liye logon ke pratinidhi ke roop mein yeh aavash‍aayak hota hai ki use apni jim‍aamedaariyon ke paalan ke liye sarkaar ke kriyaakalaapon ke baare mein jaankaari ho. prash‍aan poochhane ka mool uddesh‍aaya lok mahat‍aav ke kisi maamale par jaankaari praap‍aat karna aur tath‍aaya jaanana hai.

donon sadanon mein prat‍aayek baithak ke praarambh mein ek ghante tak prash‍aan kiye jaate hain. aur unke uttar diye jaate hain. ise 'prash‍aanakaal' kaha jaata hai. iske atirik‍aat, khoji aur anupoorak prash‍aan poochhane se mantriyon ka bhi pareekshan hota hai ki ve apne vibhaagon ke kaaryakaran ko kitna samajhte hain.

prash‍aanakaal sansad ki kaaryavaahiyon ka sabse adhik dilchas‍aap ang hai. logon ke liye samaachaar patron ke liye aur s‍aavayan sadas‍aayon ke liye koi an‍aaya kaarya itni dilchas‍aapi paida naheen karta jitni ki prash‍aanakaal paida karta hai. is kaal ke dauraan sadan ka vaataavaran anish‍aachit hota hai. kabhi achaanak tanaav ka bavandar uth khada hota hai to kabhi kahakahe lagne lagte hain. kabhi kabhi kisi prash‍aan par hone vaale katu tark-vitrk se uttejana paida hoti hai. aisi haalat sadas‍aayon ya mantriyon ki haajir-javaabi aur vinodapriyta se door ho jaati hai.

yahi kaaran hai ki prash‍aanakaal ke dauraan na keval sadan kaksh bal‍aki darshak evam press gailariyaan bhi sada lagbhag bhari rahati hain.

kuchh prash‍aanon ka maukhik uttar diya jaata hai. in‍aahein taaraankit prash‍aan kaha jaata hai. ataaraankit prash‍aanon ka likhit uttar diya jaata hai.

yeh baat nish‍aachit roop se kahi ja sakti hai ki sadas‍aaya prash‍aan poochhane ke adhikaar ka prayog karne mein bhaari roochi dikhaate rahe hain. choonki prash‍aanon ki prakriya apekshat: saral aur aasaan hai. at: yeh sansadeeya prakriya ke an‍aaya upaayon ki tulana mein sansad sadas‍aayon mein adhikaadhik priya hoti ja rahi hai.

shoon‍aayakaal (jeero aavar)

sansad ke donon sadanon mein prash‍aanakaal ke theek baad ka samay aamtaur par 'shoon‍aayakaal' athva jeero aavar ke naam se jaana jaane laga hai. yeh ek se adhik arthon mein shoon‍aayakaal hota hai. 12 baje dopahar ka samay na to madh‍aayaahn poorv ka samay hota hai aur na hi madh‍aayaahn pash‍aachaat ka samay. 'shoon‍aayakaal' 12 baje praarambh hone ke kaaran is naam se jaana jaata hai ise 'aavar' bhi kaha gaya k‍aayonki pehle 'shoon‍aayakaal' poore ghante tak chalta tha, arthaat 1 baje din mein sadan ka din ke bhojan ke liye avakaash hone tak.

yeh koi naheen kah sakta ki is kaal ke dauraan kaun-sa maamala uth khada ho ya sarkaar par kis tarah ka aakraman kar diya jaae. niyamon mein 'shoon‍aayakaal' ka kaheen bhi koi ul‍aalekh naheen hai. prash‍aanakaal ke samaap‍aat hote hi sadas‍aayagan aise maamale uthaane ke liye khade ho jaate hain jinke baare mein ve mahasoos karte hain ki kaaryavaahi karne mein deri naheen ki ja sakti. haalaaainki is prakaar maamale uthaane ke liye niyamon mein koi upabandh naheen hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki is pratha ke peechhe yahi vichaar raha hai ki aise niyam jo raash‍aatreeya mahat‍aav ke maamale ya logon ki gambhir shikaayaton sambandhi maamale sadan mein turant uthaae jaane mein sadas‍aayon ke liye baadhak hote hain, ve nirrthak hain.

niyamon ki drush‍aati se tathaakathit 'shoon‍aayakaal' ek aniyamitata hai. maamale choonki bina anumati ke ya bina poorv soochana ke uthaae jaate hain at: isse sadan ka bahumool‍aaya samay v‍aayarth jaata hai. isse sadan ke vidhaayi, vitteeya aur an‍aaya niyamit kaarya ka atikraman hota hai. ab to shoon‍aayakaal mein uthaaye jaane vaale kuchh maamalon ki pehle se di gayi soochana ke aadhaar par, adh‍aayaksh ki anumati se, ek soochi bhi banane lagi hai.

sansad mein janahit ke maamale

sansad ke donon sadanon ke niyamon mein lok mahat‍aav ke maamale bina deri ke aur kai prakaar se uthaane ki v‍aayavas‍aatha hai. jo vibhin‍aan prakriyaaen prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko upalab‍aadh rahati hain ve is prakaar hain:

s‍aathagan pras‍aataav

iske dvaara lok sabha ke niyamit kaam-kaaj ko rokakar tat‍aakaal mahat‍aavooparn maamale par charcha karaai ja sakti hai.

dh‍aayaanaakarshan

iske dvaara koi bhi sadas‍aaya sarkaar ka dh‍aayaan tat‍aakaal mahat‍aav ke maamale ki aur dila sakta hai. mantri ko us maamale mein bayaan dena hota hai. dh‍aayaanaakarshan karne vaale prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko ek prash‍aan poochhane ka adhikaar hota hai.

aapaatkaaleen charchaaen

inke dvaara tat‍aakaal mahat‍aav ke prash‍aanon par ek ghante ki charcha ki ja sakti hai. haalaaainki is par matadaan naheen hota.

vishesh ul‍aalekh

hamaare nirvaachit pra‍aatinidhi kis tarah aise maamale uthaane ka prayaas karte hain jinka niyamon evam viniymon ki v‍aayaakh‍aaya se koi sambandh naheen hota. lekin ye maamale us samay un‍aahein aur unke nirvaachan kshetr ke logon ko uttejit kar rahe hote hain. jo maamale v‍aayavas‍aatha ke prash‍aan naheen hote ya jo prash‍aanon, al‍aap-soochana prash‍aanon, dh‍aayaanaakarshan pras‍aataavon aadi se sambandhit niyamon ke adheen naheen uthaae ja sakte, ve iske adheen uthaae jaate hain.

pras‍aataav (motion)

sadan lok mahat‍aav ke vibhin‍aan maamalon par anek faisale karta hai aur apni rai v‍aayak‍aat karta hai. koi bhi sadas‍aaya ek pras‍aataav ke roop mein koi sujhaav sadan ke samaksh rakh sakta hai. jismein usaki rai ya ich‍aachha di gayi ho. yadi sadan use s‍aaveekaar kar leta hai to vah samooche sadan ki rai ya ich‍aachha ban jaati hai. ant: mote taur par 'pras‍aataav' sadan ka faisala jaanane ke liye sadan ke saamane laaya jaata hai.

pras‍aataav vaas‍aatav mein sansadeeya kaaryavaahi ka aadhaar hote hain. lok mahat‍aav ka koi bhi maamala kisi pras‍aataav ka vishay ho sakta hai. pras‍aataav bhin‍aan bhin‍aan sadas‍aayon dvaara bhin‍aan bhin‍aan prayojanon se pesh kiye ja sakte hain. pras‍aataav mantriyon dvaara pesh kiye ja sakte hain aur gair-sarkaari sadas‍aayon dvaara bhi. gair-sarkaari sadas‍aayon dvaara pesh kiye jaane vaale pras‍aataavon ka uddesh‍aaya saamaan‍aayat: kisi maamale par sarkaar ki rai ya vichaar jaanana hota hai.

sankal‍aap

sankal‍aap bhi ek prakriyaagat upaaya hai yeh aam logon ke hit ke kisi maamale par sadan mein charcha uthaane ke liye sadas‍aayon aur mantriyon ko upalab‍aadh hai. saamaan‍aaya roop ke pras‍aataavon ke samaan sankal‍aap, rai ya sifaarish ki ghoshana ke roop mein ho sakta hai. ya kisi aise an‍aaya roop mein ho sakta hai jaisa ki adh‍aayaksh uchit samajhe.

avish‍aavaas pras‍aataav

mantriprishd tab tak padaaseen rahati hai jab tak use lok sabha ka vish‍aavaas praap‍aat ho. lok sabha dvaara mantriprishd mein avish‍aavaas v‍aayak‍aat karte hi sarkaar ko samvaidhaanik roop se pad chhodna hota hai. niyamon mein is aashay ka ek pras‍aataav pesh karne ka upabandh hai jise 'avish‍aavaas pras‍aataav' kaha jaata hai. Rajyasabha ko avish‍aavaas pras‍aataav par vichaar karne ki shak‍aati praap‍aat naheen hai.

ninda pras‍aataav

ninda pras‍aataav avish‍aavaas ke pras‍aataav se bhin‍aan hota hai. avish‍aavaas ke pras‍aataav mein un kaaranon ka ul‍aalekh naheen hota jin par vah aadhaarit ho. parantu ninda pras‍aataav mein aise kaaranon ya aaropon ka ul‍aalekh karna aavash‍aayak hota hai. yeh pras‍aataav katipya neetiyon aur kaaryon ke liye sarkaar ki ninda karne ke iraade se pesh kiya jaata hai. ninda pras‍aataav mantriprishd ke virooddh ya kisi ek mantri ke virooddh ya kuchh mantriyon ke virooddh pesh kiya jaata hai. usamein kisi mantri ya mantriyon ki vifalta par sadan dvaara khed, rosh ya aash‍aacharya prakat kiya jaata hai.

sansad mein bajat

sarkaar ko shaasan, suraksha aur jan kal‍aayaan ke bahut se kaam karne hote hain. in sabke liye bahut saadhan chaahiye. ye aaen kahaaain se? sarkaar janta se kar vasoolati hai. jaroorat padne par karje bhi leti hai. k‍aayonki ham sansadeeya v‍aayavas‍aatha mein rahate hain, sarkaar ke liye yeh jaroori hai ki koi bhi kar lagaane ya koi bhi kharcha karne se pehle vah sansad ki manjoori le. is manjoori ko lene ke liye hi har varsh sarkaar ek bajat yaani poore saal ki aamdani aur kharche ka lekha jokha sansad mein pesh karti hai.

rel bajat aur saamaan‍aaya bajat alag alag pesh kiye jaate hain. saamaan‍aaya bajat praay: February ke antim kaarya diwas par laaya jaata hai. rel bajat usase kuchh din pehle aa jaata hai. vitteeya varsh is samay prat‍aayek saal ki pehli April se aarambh hota hai. bajat mein is aashay ka pras‍aataav hota hai ki aane vaale saal ke dauraan kis mad par kitna dhan kharch kiya jaana hai. usamein kitna dhan kis tareeke se aaega ya kahaaain se jutaaya jaaega. bajat ke aagaami varsh ke liye anudaan diye jaate hain. sarkaar ko apni vitteeya aur aarthik neetiyon tatha kaaryakramon aur unki v‍ayaakh‍aya karne ka avsar milta hai. saath hi, sansad ko un par vichaar karne aur unki aalochna karne ka bhi avsar milta hai.

bajat paas karne ki prakriya mein sansad ke donon sadanon mein gambhir evam poorn charcha hoti hai. yeh bajat pesh kiye jaane ke kuchh din baad hoti hai. charcha saamaan‍aaya vaad vivaad se aarambh hoti hai. yeh sansad ke donon sadanon mein teen ya chaar din tak chalti hai. pratha yeh hai ki is avas‍aatha mein sadas‍aaya sarkaar ki raajakosheeya aur aarthik neetiyon ke saamaan‍aaya pahaluon par hi vichaar karte hain. kar lagaane tatha kharch ke b‍aayaure mein naheen jaate. is prakaar saamaan‍aaya vaad vivaad se prat‍aayek sadan ko apne vichaar v‍aayak‍aat karne ka avsar milta hai. sarkaar ko bhi aabhaas ho jaata hai ki kisi pras‍aataav vishesh ke prati baad ki avas‍aathaaon mein k‍aya pratikriya hogi. yeh dh‍aayaan dene ki baat hai ki Rajyasabha ko saamaan‍aaya charcha ke alaava bajat se koi sarokaar naheen hota. maangon par matadaan keval lok sabha mein hota hai. doosari avas‍aatha anudaanon ki maangon par charcha aur matadaan ki hai. saamaan‍aayat: prat‍aayek mantraalaya ke liye pras‍aataavit anudaanon ke liye alag maange rakhi jaati hain. in 'maango' ka sambandh bajat ke v‍aayaya vaale bhaag se hota hai. inka s‍aavaroop kaaryapaalika dvaara lok sabha ke liye kiye gaye nivedan ka hai ki maangi gayi raashi ko kharch karne ka adhikaar diya jaae.

maango par charcha roochipoorn hoti hai. charcha ke dauraan mantraalaya ki neetiyon aur kriyaakalaapon ki baareeki se chhaanabeen ki jaati hai. anudaanon ki maangon ke mool pras‍aataav ke sahaayak pras‍aataav pesh karke sadas‍aaya aisa kar sakte hain. in sahaayak pras‍aataavon ko sansadeeya bhaasha mein 'katauti pras‍aataav' kaha jaata hai.

lekhaanudaan

bajat paas karne ki prakriya bajat pesh kiye jaane se is par charcha karne aur anudaanon ki maange s‍aaveekrut karne aur viniyog tatha vitt vidheyakon ke paas hone tak saamaan‍aayat: chaaloo vitteeya varsh ke aarambh hone ke baad tak chalti rahati hai. jab tak sansad, maangein s‍aaveekrut naheen kar leti tab tak ke liye yeh aavash‍aayak hai ki desh ka prashaasan chalaane ke liye sarkaar ke paas paryaap‍aat dhan upalab‍aadh ho. isliye 'lekhaanudaan' ke liye vishesh upabandh kiya gaya hai. jiske dvaara Loksabha ko shak‍aati di gayi hai ki vah bajat ki prakriya poori hone tak kisi vitteeya varsh ke ek bhaag ke liye peshagi anudaan de sakti hai.

kaanoon nirmaan prakriya

kaanoon banaana sansad ka pramukh kaam maana jaata hai. iske liye pahal adhikaanshat: kaaryapaalika dvaara ki jaati hai. sarkaar vidhaayi pras‍aataav pesh karti hai. us par charcha tatha vaad vivaad ke pash‍aachaat sansad us par anumodan ki apni muhar lagaati hai.

sabhi kaanooni pras‍aataav vidheyak ke roop mein sansad mein pesh kiye jaate hain. vidheyak vidhaayi pras‍aataav ka masauda hota hai. vidheyak sansad ke kisi ek sadan mein sarkaar dvaara ya kisi gair-sarkaari sadas‍aaya dvaara pesh kiya ja sakta hai. is prakaar mote taur par, vidheyak do prakaar ke hote hain: (k) sarkaari vidheyak aur (kh) gair-sarkaari sadas‍aayon ke vidheyak. vidhi ka roop lene vaale adhikaansh vidheyak sarkaari vidheyak hote hain. vaise to gair sarkaari sadas‍aayon ke bahut kam vidheyak vidhi ka roop lete hain. ‍afir bhi unke dvaara yeh baat sarkaar aur logon ke dh‍aayaan mein laai jaati hai ki maujooda kaanoon mein sanshodhan karne ya koi aavash‍aayak vidhaan banaane ki aavash‍aayakata hai.

vidheyak ka masauda us vishay se sambandhit sarkaar ke mantraalaya mein vidhi mantraalaya ki sahaayata se taiyaar kiya jaata hai. mantrimandal ke anumodan ke baad ise sansad ke saamane laaya jaata hai. sambandhit mantri dvaara use sansad ke donon sadanon mein se kisi bhi sadan mein pesh kiya ja sakta hai. keval dhan vidheyak ke maamale mein yeh paabandi hai ki vah Rajyasabha mein pesh naheen kiya ja sakta.

adhiniyam ka roop lene se poorv vidheyak ko sansad mein vibhin‍aan avas‍aathaaon se gujarana padta hai. prat‍aayek vidheyak ke prat‍aayek sadan mein teen vachan hote hain. arthaat pehla vaachan, doosra vaachan aur teesara vaachan.

vidheyak 'pesh karna,' vidheyak ka pehla vaachan hai. pratha ke anusaar is avas‍aatha mein charcha naheen ki jaati hai. vidheyak ka doosra vaachan sabse adhik vis‍aatrut evam mahat‍aavapoorn avas‍aatha hai k‍aayonki isi avas‍aatha mein iski vis‍aatrut evam baareeki se jaanch ki jaati hai. jab vidheyak ke sabhi khando par aur anusoochiyon par, yadi koi hon, sadan vichaar kar un‍aahein s‍aaveekrut kar leta hai. tab mantri yeh pras‍aataav kar sakta hai ki vidheyak ko paas kiya jaae. yeh teesara vaachan kahalaata hai. jis sadan mein ‍avidheyak pesh kiya gaya ho usamein paas kiye jaane ke baad use sahamati ke liye doosare sadan mein bheja jaata hai. vahaaain vidheyak fir in teenon avas‍aathaaon mein se gujarata hai.

kisi vidheyak par donon ke beech asahamati ke kaaran gatirodh hone par ek asaadhaaran s‍aathiti ut‍aapan‍aan ho jaati hai. jiska samaadhaan donon sadanon ki sanyuk‍aat baithak mein hota hai. jab donon sadanon dvaara koi vidheyak alag alag ya sanyuk‍aat baithak mein paas kar diya jaata hai to use raash‍aatrapati ke paas bheja jaata hai. yadi raash‍aatrapati anumati pradaan kar deta hai to anumati ki tithi se vidheyak adhiniyam ban jaata hai.

sanshodhan ke dvaara samvidhaan ke kisi bhi anuch‍aachhed mein badlaav laaya ja sakta hai. kintu uch‍aachatam n‍aayaayaalaya ke nirnaya ke anusaar samvidhaan ke mool dhaanche ya mool tat‍aavon ko nash‍aat ya n‍aayoon karne wala koi parivartan naheen kiya ja sakta.

sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar

sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ve vishish‍aat adhikaar hain jo sansad ke donon sadanon ko, uske sadas‍aayon ko aur samitiyon ko praap‍aat hai. visheshaadhikaar is drush‍aati se diye jaate hain ki sansad ke donon sadan, usaki samitiyaan aur sadas‍aaya s‍aavatantr roop se kaam kar sakein. unki garima bani rahe, parantu iska yeh arth naheen hai ki kaanoon ki najaron mein saadhaaran naagrikon ke mukaabale mein visheshaadhikaar praap‍aat sadas‍aayon ki s‍aathiti bhin‍aan hai. jahaaain tak vidhiyon ke laagoo hone ka sambandh hai, sadas‍aaya logon ke pratinidhi hone ke saath saath saadhaaran naagrik bhi hote hain. mool vidhi yeh hai ki sansad sadas‍aayon sahit sabhi naagrik kaanoon ki najaron mein baraabar maane jaane chaahiye. jo daayit‍aav an‍aaya naagrikon ke hon, vahi unke bhi hote hain aur shaayad sadas‍aaya hone ke naate kuchh adhik hote hain.

sansadon ka sabse mahat‍aavapoorn visheshaadhikaar hai sadan aur usaki samitiyon mein poori s‍aavatantrata ke saath apne vichaar rakhane ki chhoot. sansad ke kisi sadas‍aaya dvaara kahi gayi kisi baat ya diye gaye kisi mat ke sambandh mein uske virooddh kisi n‍aayaayaalaya mein koi kaaryavaahi naheen ki ja sakti. sansadeeya visheshaadhikaaron ki soochiyaan taiyaar ki ja sakti hain. vaas‍aatav mein ye taiyaar bhi ki gain hain parantu aisi koi bhi soochi poori naheen hai. thode mein kah sakte hain ki koi bhi vah kaam jo sadan ke, usaki samitiyon ke ya uske sadas‍aayon ke kaam mein kisi prakaar ki baadha daale vah sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ka hanan karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, koi sadas‍aaya na keval us samay giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta jabki us sadan ka, jiska ki vah sadas‍aaya ho, adhiveshan chal raha ho ya jabki us sansadeeya samiti ki, jiska vah sadas‍aaya ho, baithak chal rahi ho, ya jabki donon sadanon ki sanyuk‍aat baithak chal rahi ho, ya jabki donon sadanon ki sanyuk‍aat baithak chal rahi ho. sansad ke adhiveshan ke praarambh se 40 din pehle aur usaki samaap‍aati se 40 din baad ya jabki vah sadan ko aa raha ho ya sadan ke baahar ja raha ho, tab bhi use giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta.

sansad ke parisaron ke bheetar, adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ki anumati ke bina, deevaani ya aaparaadhik koi kaanooni 'saman' naheen diye ja sakte hain. adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ki anumati ke bina sansad bhavan ke andar kisi ko bhi giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai. k‍aayonki sansad ke parisaron mein keval sansad ke sadan ke ya adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ke aadeshon ka paalan hota hai. yahaaain an‍aaya kisi sarkaari praadhikaari ke ya s‍aathaaneeya prashaasan ke aadesh ka paalan naheen hota.

sansad ka prat‍aayek sadan apne visheshaadhikaar ka s‍aavayan hi rakshak hota hai. visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya sadan ki avamaanana karne vaale ko bhart‍aasana karke ya taadna karke ya nirdhaarit avadhi ke liye kaaraavaas dvaara dandit kar sakta hai. s‍aavayan apne sadas‍aayon ke maamale mein sadan an‍aaya do prakaar ke dand de sakta hai, arthaat sadan ki seva se nilambit karna aur nikaal dena, kisi sadas‍aaya ko ek nirdhaarit avadhi ke liye sadan ki seva se nilambit kiya ja sakta hai. kisi ati gambhir maamale mein sadan se nikaala ja sakta hai.

sadan aparaadhiyon ko aisi avadhi ke liye kaaraavaas ka dand de sakta hai jo saadhaaranat: sadan ke adhiveshan ki avadhi se adhik naheen hoti. jaise hi sadan ka satraavasaan hota hai, bandi ko muk‍aat kar diya jaata hai. darshakon dvaara gailari mein naare lagaakar aur/athva ish‍aatihaar feinkakar sadan ki avamaanana karne ke kaaran, donon sadanon ne, samay samay par, aparaadhiyon ko sadan ke us din s‍aathagit hone tak kaaraavaas ka dand diya hai.

sadan ka daandik kshetr apne sadanon tak aur unke saamane kiye gaye aparaadhon tak hi seemit na hokar sadan ki sabhi avamaananaaon par laagoo hota hai. chaahe avamaanana sadas‍aayon dvaara ki gayi ho ya aise v‍aayak‍aatiyon dvaara jo sadas‍aaya na hon. isse bhi koi antar naheen padta ki aparaadh sadan ke bheetar kiya gaya hai ya uske parisar se baahar. sadan ka visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya usaki avamaanana karne ke kaaran v‍aayak‍aatiyon ko dand dene ki sadan ki yeh shak‍aati sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ki neenv hai. sadan ki aisi panrapara bhi rahi hai ki sadan ka visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya sadan ki avamaanana karne ke doshi v‍aayak‍aatiyon dvaara s‍aapash‍aat roop se aur bina kisi shart ke dil se v‍aayak‍aat kiya gaya khed sadan dvaara s‍aaveekaar kar liya jaata hai. aise mein saadhaaranat: sadan apni garima ko dekhte hue aise maamalon par aage kaaryavaahi na karne ka faisala karta hai.

sadas‍aayon ke vetan evam bhatte

donon sadanon ke sadas‍aaya aise vetan aur bhatte, jin‍aahein sansad samay samay par, vidhi dvaara tay kare, paane ke hakdaar hai.

sansad ne sansad sadas‍aaya (vetan, bhatte aur peinshan) adhiniyam ke adheen sadas‍aayon ko peinshan diye jaane ki s‍aaveekruti di hai. chaar varsh ke sevaakaal vaale prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya to ek hajaar chaar sau roopaye prati maas ki peinshan di jaati hai. iske atirik‍aat paaainch varsh ke baad ki seva ke prat‍aayek varsh ke liye 250 roopaye aur diye jaate hain.

prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya 1500 roopaye pratimaas ka vetan tatha aise s‍aathaan par, jahaaain sansad ke kisi sadan ka adhiveshan ya samiti ki baithak ho, duty par nivaas ke dauraan 200 roopaye pratidin ka bhatta praap‍aat karne ka hakdaar hai. maasik vetan tatha dainik bhatte ke alaava prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya 3000 roopaye maasik ka nirvaachan kshetr bhatta aur 1000 roopaye pratimaas ki dar se kaaryaalaya v‍aayaya praap‍aat karne ka hakdaar hai.

yaatra sambandhi suvidhaaen : prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya nim‍aanalikhit yaatra –bhatte paane ka hakdaar hai:

(k) rel dvaara yaatra ke liye: ek pratham shreni ke tatha ek dviteeya shreni ke kiraae ke baraabar rakam

(kh) vimaan dvaara yaatra ke liye: prat‍aayek aisi yaatra ke liye vimaan kiraae ke sava guna ke baraabar rakam

(g) sadak dvaara yaatra ke liye: paaainch roopaye prati kilometer tatha s‍aateemar dvaara yaatra ke liye uch‍aachatam shreni ke kiraae ke atirik‍aat usaka 3/5 bhaag.

iske alaava, prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko prativrsh desh ke andar kaheen bhi apni pat‍aani/apne pati ya sahachar ke saath 28 ek tarafa vimaan yaatraaen karne ki chhoot hoti hai. prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko desh ke andar kaheen bhi, kitni bhi baar, vaataanukoolit shreni mein yaatra ke liye s‍aavayan tatha sahachar ke liye ek railway paas bhi milta hai. pat‍aani/pati ke liye ek alag se paas bhi mil sakta hai.

telephone : prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya nishul‍aak telephone-ek dil‍aali mein tatha doosra apne nivaas s‍aathaan par lagavaanein ka hakdaar hai. iske alaava, use prativrsh nishul‍aak 50,000 s‍aathaaneeya kaal karne ki chhoot hoti hai.

vaas suvidha tatha vaahan : prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko dil‍aali mein makaan diya jaata hai. flaiton ke liye koi shul‍aak naheen hai. jabki bangalon ke liye naamamaatr laaiseins shul‍aak lagaaya jaata hai. katipya seemaaon mein bijli tatha paani ni:shul‍aak hote hain.

prat‍aayek sadas‍aaya ko uske kaaryakaal ke dauraan vaahan khareedne ke liye agrim-raashi di jaati hai.

an‍aaya suvidhaaeain : sadas‍aayon ko jo an‍aaya suvidhaaen pradaan ki jaati hain unamein aashulipik tatha tankan pool, aayakar mein raahat, kainteen, jalapaan aur khaanapaan, k‍aalab, kaaman room, bank, daakaghar, railway tatha havaai booking tatha aarakshan, bas parivhan, L pi ji seva, videshi mudra ka kota, laukar, super baajaar aadi shaamil hai. sansad parisar mein ekamaatr sadas‍aayon ke liye ek susaj‍aajit praathamik chikit‍aasa as‍aapataal bhi hai.

sansad parisar

sansad ki imaaraton mein sansad bhavan, sansadeeya saudh, s‍aavaagat kaaryaalaya aur nirmaanaadheen sansadeeya jnyaaanapeeth athva sansad granthaalaya sam‍aamilit hai. in sabhi ko milaakar sansad parisar kaha jaata hai ismein lambe-chaude laan, jalaashaya, fav‍aavaare aur sadkein bani hui hain. yeh saara parisar sajaavati laal pat‍aathar ki deevaaron tatha lohe ke jangalon aur lohe ke hi vishaal darvaajon se ghira hua hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain