bhaarateeya samvidhaan


Bhaarat
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yeh lekh yeh shreni ke sambandh mein hai:

Bhaarat ki raajaneeti


kendra sarkaar

samvidhaan

kaaryakaarini

vidhaayika

nyaayapaalika

sthaaneeya

bhaarateeya aamachunaav


anya desh • praveshadvaar:raajaneeti
praveshadvaar:Bhaarat sarkaar
dekhein samvaad sanpaadan

Bhaarat, sansadeeya pranaali ki sarkaar wala ek prabhusattaasampann, samaajavaadi dharmanirpeksh, lokatantraatmak ganaraajya hai. yeh ganaraajya Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke anusaar shaasit hai. Bhaarat ka samvidhaan samvidhaan sabha dvaara 26 November 1949 ko paarit hua tatha 26 January 1950 se prabhaavi hua. 26 January ka din Bhaarat mein ganatantr diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.[1] [2] [3]

javaaharalaal Nehru samvidhaan par hastaakshar karte hue

anukram

sankshipt parichay

42ve sanshodhan se poorv Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ki prastaavana

Bhaarat ka samvidhaan vishv ke kisi bhi ganataantrik desh ka sabse lamba likhit samvidhaan hai.[4]ismein ab 465 anuchhed, tatha 12 anusoochiyaan hain aur ye 22 bhaagon mein vibhaajit hai. parantu iske nirmaan ke samay mool samvidhaan mein 395 anuchhed, jo 22 bhaagon mein vibhaajit the ismein keval 8 anusoochiyaan theen. samvidhaan mein sarkaar ke sansadeeya s‍aavaroop ki v‍aayavas‍aatha ki gayi hai jiski sanrachana kuchh apavaadon ke atirikt sangheeya hai. ken‍aadreeya kaaryapaalika ka saanvidhaanik pramukh raash‍aatrapati hai. Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ki dhaara 79 ke anusaar, ken‍aadreeya sansad ki parishd mein raash‍aatrapati tatha do sadan hai jin‍aahein raaj‍aayon ki parishad raaj‍aayasabha tatha logon ka sadan Loksabha ke naam se jaana jaata hai. samvidhaan ki dhaara 74 (1) mein yeh v‍aayavas‍aatha ki gayi hai ki raash‍aatrapati ki sahaayata karne tatha use salaah dene ke liye ek mantriprishd hoga jiska pramukh pradhaanamantri hoga, raash‍aatrapati is mantriprishd ki salaah ke anusaar apne kaaryon ka nish‍aapaadan karega. is prakaar vaas‍aatavik kaaryakaari shakti mantriprishd mein nihit hai jiska pramukh pradhaanamantri hai jo vartamaan mein Narendra Modi hain.[5]

mantriprishd saamoohik roop se logon ke sadan (lok sabha) ke prati uttaradaayi hai. prat‍aayek raaj‍aaya mein ek vidhaanasabha hai. Jammu Kashmir, uttar pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka aur Andhra Pradesh mein ek oopari sadan hai jise vidhaanaparishd kaha jaata hai. raaj‍aayapaal raaj‍aaya ka pramukh hai. prat‍aayek raaj‍aaya ka ek raaj‍aayapaal hoga tatha raaj‍aaya ki kaaryakaari shakti usamein vihit hogi. mantriprishd, jiska pramukh mukh‍aayamantri hai, raaj‍aayapaal ko uske kaaryakaari kaaryon ke nish‍aapaadan mein salaah deti hai. raaj‍aaya ki mantriprishd saamoohik roop se raaj‍aaya ki vidhaan sabha ke prati uttaradaayi hai.

samvidhaan ki saataveen anusoochi mein sansad tatha raaj‍aaya vidhaayikaaon ke beech vidhaayi shaktiyon ka vitran kiya gaya hai. avashish‍aat shaktiyaaain sansad mein vihit hain. ken‍aadreeya prashaasit bhoo-bhaagon ko sangharaaj‍aaya kshetr kaha jaata hai.

itihaas

dviteeya vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke baad July 1945 mein Britain ne Bhaarat sanbandhi apni nai neeti ki ghoshana ki tatha Bhaarat ki samvidhaan sabha ke nirmaan ke liye ek cabinet mission Bhaarat bheja jismein 3 mantri the. 15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat ke aajaad ho jaane ke baad samvidhaan sabha ki ghoshana hui aur isne apna kaarya 9 December 1947 se aarambh kar diya. samvidhaan sabha ke sadasya Bhaarat ke raajyon ki sabhaaon ke nirvaachit sadasyon ke dvaara chune gaye the. javaaharalaal Nehru, Dr bheemaraav ambedakar, Dr Rajendra prasaad, sardaar vallabh bhaai Patel, maulaana abul kalaam aajaad aadi is sabha ke pramukh sadasya the. is samvidhaan sabha ne 2 varsh, 11 maah, 18 din me kul 114 din baithak ki. iski baithakon mein press aur janta ko bhaag lene ki svatantrata thi. Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke nirmaan mein Dr bheemaraav ambedakar ne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai, isliye unhein 'samvidhaan ka nirmaata' kaha jaata hai.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki sanrachana

vartamaan samay mein (sitmbar 2012) bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke nimnalikhit bhaag hain-[6]

  • ek uddeshika,
  • 448 dhaaraaon se yukt 25 bhaag,
  • 12 anusoochiyaaain,
  • 5 anulagnak (appendices), tatha
  • 100 sanshodhan .

anusoochiyaaain

pehli anusoochi - (anuchhed 1 tatha 4) - raajya tatha sangh raajya kshetr ka varnan.

doosari anusoochi - [anuchhed 59(3), 65(3), 75(6),97, 125,148(3), 158(3),164(5),186 tatha 221] - mukhya padaadhikaariyon ke vetan-bhatte [7]

  • bhaag-k : raashtrapati aur raajyapaal ke vetan-bhatte,
  • bhaag-kh : Loksabha tatha vidhaanasabha ke adhyaksh tatha upaadhyaksh, Rajyasabha tatha vidhaan parishd ke sabhaapati tatha upasabhaapati ke vetan-bhatte,
  • bhaag-g : uchchatam nyaayaalaya ke nyaayaadheeshon ke vetan-bhatte,
  • bhaag-gh : Bhaarat ke niyantrak-mahaalekha pareekshakake vetan-bhatte.

teesari anusoochi - [anuchhed 75(4),99, 124(6),148(2), 164(3),188 aur 219] - vyavasthaapika ke sadasya, mantri, raashtrapati, uparaashtrapati, nyaayaadheeshon aadi ke liye shapath liye jaanevaale pratijnyaaan ke praaroop diye hain.

chauthi anusoochi - [anuchhed 4(1),80(2)] - Rajyasabha mein sthaanon ka aabantan raajyon tatha sangh raajya kshetron se.

paaainchavi anusoochi - [anuchhed 244(1)] - anusoochit kshetron aur anusoochit jan-jaatiyon ke prashaasan aur niyantran se sambandhit upabandh.

chhathi anusoochi - [anuchhed 244(2), 275(1)] - asam, meghaalaya, tripura aur mijoram raajyon ke janajaati kshetron ke prashaasan ke vishay me upabandh.

saataveen anusoochi - [anuchhed 246] - vishyon ke vitran se sambandhit soochi-1 sangh soochi, soochi-2 raajya soochi, soochi-3 samavarti soochi.

aathaveen anusoochi - [anuchhed 344(1), 351] - bhaashaaeain - 22 bhaashaaon ka ullekh.

naveen anusoochi - [anuchhed 31 kh ] - kuchh bhumi sudhaar sambandhi adhiniymon ka vidhimaanya karan.

dasveen anusoochi - [anuchhed 102(2), 191(2)] - dal parivartan sambandhi upabandh tatha parivartan ke aadhaar par a

gyaaraveen anusoochi - panchaayati raaj/ jila panchaayat se sambandhit yeh anusoochi samvidhaan me 73ve sanvedhaanik sanshodhan (1993) dvaara jodi gayi.

baarahaveen anusoochi - yeh anusoochi samvidhaan me 74 ve sanvedhaanik sanshodhan dvaara jodi gayi.

aadhaarbhoot visheshataaeain

samvidhaan praaroop samiti tatha sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne bhaarateeya samvidhaan ko sanghaatmak samvidhaan maana hai, parantu vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. amereeki vidvaan is ko 'chhadm-sanghaatmak-samvidhaan' kehte hain, haalaanki poorvi sanvidhaanavetta kehte hain ki ameriki samvidhaan hi ekamaatr sanghaatmak samvidhaan naheen ho sakta. samvidhaan ka sanghaatmak hona usamein nihit sanghaatmak lakshanon par nirbhar karta hai, kintu maananeeya sarvochch nyaayaalaya (pi kannaadaasan vaad) ne ise poorn sanghaatmak maana hai.

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke prastaavana ke anusaar Bhaarat ek samprubhataasampann, samaajavaadi, dharmanirpeksh, lokataantrik, ganaraajya hai.

samprubhata

samprubhata shabd ka arth hai sarvochch ya svatantr. Bhaarat kisi bhi videshi aur aantarik shakti ke niyantran se poornat: mukt samprubhataasampann raashtra hai. yeh seedhe logon dvaara chune gaye ek mukt sarkaar dvaara shaasit hai tatha yahi sarkaar kaanoon banaakar logon par shaasan karti hai.

samaajavaadi

samaajavaadi shabd samvidhaan ke 1976 mein hue 42vein sanshodhan adhiniyam dvaara prastaavana mein joda gaya. yeh apne sabhi naagrikon ke liye saamaajik aur aarthik samaanata sunishchit karta hai. jaati, rang, nasl, ling, dharm ya bhaasha ke aadhaar par koi bhedabhaav kiye bina sabhi ko baraabar ka darja aur avsar deta hai. sarkaar keval kuchh logon ke haathon mein dhan jama hone se rokegi tatha sabhi naagrikon ko ek achha jeevan star pradaan karne ki koshish karegi.

Bhaarat ne ek mishrit aarthik model ko apnaaya hai. sarkaar ne samaajavaad ke lakshya ko praapt karne ke liye kai kaanoonon jaise asprushyata unmoolan, jameendaari adhiniyam, samaan vetan adhiniyam aur baal shram nishedh adhiniyam aadi banaaya hai.

dharmanirpeksh

dharmanirpeksh shabd samvidhaan ke 1976 mein hue 42vein sanshodhan adhiniyam dvaara prastaavana mein joda gaya. yeh sabhi dharmon ki samaanata aur dhaarmik sahishnuta sunishcheet karta hai. Bhaarat ka koi aadhikaarik dharm naheen hai. yeh na to kisi dharm ko badhaava deta hai, na hi kisi se bhedabhaav karta hai. yeh sabhi dharmon ka sammaan karta hai va ek samaan vyavahaar karta hai. har vyakti ko apne pasand ke kisi bhi dharm ka upaasana, paalan aur prachaar ka adhikaar hai. sabhi naagrikon, chaahe unki dhaarmik maanyata kuchh bhi ho kaanoon ki najar mein baraabar hote hain. sarkaari ya sarkaari anudaan praapt schoolon mein koi dhaarmik anudesh laagoo naheen hota.

lokataantrik

Bhaarat ek svatantr desh hai, kisi bhi jagah se vote dene ki aajaadi, sansad mein anusoochit saamaajik samoohon aur anusoochit janajaatiyon ko vishisht seatein aarakshit ki gayi hai. sthaaneeya nikaaya chunaav mein mahila ummeedavaaron ke liye ek nishchit anupaat mein seatein aarakshit ki jaati hai. sabhi chunaavon mein mahilaaon ke liye ek tihaai seatein aarakshit karne ka ek vidheyak lambit hai. haalaanki iski kriyaannavayan kaise hoga, yeh nishchit naheen hain. Bhaarat ka chunaav aayog svatantr aur nishpaksh chunaavon ke liye jimmedaar hai.

ganaraajya

raajashaahi, jismein raajya ke pramukh vanshaanugat aadhaar par ek jeevan bhar ya padatyaag karne tak ke liye niyukt kiya jaata hai, ke vipreet ek ganataantrik raashtra ke pramukh ek nishchit avadhi ke liye pratyaksh ya paroksh roop se janta dvaara nirvaachit hote hai. Bhaarat ke raashtrapati paanch varsh ki avadhi ke liye ek chunaavi college dvaara chune jaate hain.

shakti vibhaajan

yeh bhaarateeya samvidhaan ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn lakshan hai, raajya ki shaktiyaan keindreeya tatha raajya sarkaaron me vibhaajit hoti hain. donon sattaaeain ek-doosare ke adheen nahi hoti hai, ve samvidhaan se utpann tatha niyantrit hoti hain.

samvidhaan ki sarvochata

samvidhaan ke upabandh sangh tatha raajya sarkaaron par samaan roop se baadhyakaari hote hain. kendra tatha raajya shakti vibhaajit karne vaale anuchhed nimn diye gaye hain:

  1. anuchhed 54,55,73,162,241.
  2. bhaag -5 sarvochch nyaayaalaya uchch nyaayaalaya raajya tatha kendra ke madhya vaidhaanik sambandh.
  3. anuchhed 7 ke antargat koi bhi soochi.
  4. raajyo ka sansad me pratinidhitv.
  5. samvidhaan me sanshodhan ki shakti anu 368in sabhi anuchhedo mein sansad akele sanshodhan nahi la sakti hai use raajyon ki sahamati bhi chaahiye.

anya anuchhed shakti vibhaajan se sambandhit naheen hain:

  1. likhit samvidhaan anivaarya roop se likhit roop mein hoga kyonki usamein shakti vibhaajan ka spasht varnan aavashyak hai. at: sangh me likhit samvidhaan avashya hoga.
  2. samvidhaan ki kathorata iska arth hai samvidhaan sanshodhan mein raajya kendra dono bhaag leinge.
  3. nyaayaalayo ki adhikaarita- iska arth hai ki kendra-raajya kaanoon ki vyaakhya hetu ek nishpaksh tatha svatantr satta par nirbhar kareinge.

vidhi dvaara sthaapit:

  1. nyaayaalaya hi sangh-raajya shaktiyo ke vibhaajan ka paryavekshan kareinge.
  2. nyaayaalaya samvidhaan ke antim vyaakhyaakarta honge Bhaarat mein yeh satta sarvochch nyaayaalaya ke paas hai.

ye paanch sharte kisi samvidhaan ko sanghaatmak banaane hetu anivaarya hai. Bhaarat mein ye paanchon lakshan samvidhaan mein maujood hai at: yeh sanghaatmak hain. parantu bhaarateeya samvidhaan me kuchh vibhedakaari visheshataaeain bhi hai:

bhaarateeya samvidhaan me kuchh vibhedakaari visheshataaeain bhi hai

  • 1 yeh sangh raajyon ke paraspar samjhaute se naheen bana hai
  • 2 raajya apna pruthak samvidhaan nahi rakh sakte hai, keval ek hi samvidhaan kendra tatha raajya dono par laagoo hota hai
  • 3 Bhaarat me dvaidh naagarikta naheen hai. keval bhaarateeya naagarikta hai
  • 4 bhaarateeya samvidhaan me aapaatakaal laagoo karne ke upabandh hai [352 anuchhed] ke laagoo hone par raajya-kendra shakti pruthakkaran samaapt ho jaayega tatha vah ekaatmak samvidhaan ban jaayega. is sthiti me kendra-raajyon par poorn samprabhu ho jaata hai
  • 5 raajyon ka naam, kshetr tatha seema kendra kabhi bhi parivrtit kar sakta hai [bina raajyon ki sahamati se] [anuchhed 3] at: raajya bhaarateeya sangh ke anivaarya ghatak nahi hain. kendra sangh ko purnanirmit kar sakti hai
  • 6 samvidhaan ki 7veen anusoochi me teen soochiyaaain hain sangheeya, raajya, tatha samavarti. inke vishyon ka vitran kendra ke paksh mein hai.
  • 6.1 sangheeya soochi me sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn vishay hain
  • 6.2 is soochi par keval sansad ka adhikaar hai
  • 6.3 raajya soochi ke vishay kam mahatvapoorn hain, 5 vishesh paristhitiyon me raajya soochi par sansad vidhi nirmaan kar sakti hai kintu kisi ek bhi paristhiti me raajya, kendra hetu vidhi nirmaan naheen kar sakte-
  • ka1 anu 249—aaraajya sabha yeh prastaav paarit kar de ki raashtra hit hetu yeh aavashyak hai [2/3 bahumat se] kintu yeh bandhan maatr 1 varsh hetu laagoo hota hai
  • ka2 anu 250— raashtra aapaatakaal laagoo hone par sansad ko raajya soochi ke vishyon par vidhi nirmaan ka adhikaar svat: mil jaata hai
  • ka3 anu 252—aado ya adhik raajyon ki vidhaayika prastaav paas kar raajya sabha ko yeh adhikaar de sakti hai [keval sambandhit raajyon par]
  • ka4 anu 253--- antaraashtreeya samjhaute ke anupaalan ke liye sansad raajya soochi vishay par vidhi nirmaan kar sakti hai
  • ka5 anu 356—aajab kisi raajya me raashtrapati shaasan laagoo hota hai, us sthiti mein sansad us raajya hetu vidhi nirmaan kar sakti hai
  • 7 anuchhed 155 – raajyapaalon ki niyukti poornat: kendra ki ichha se hoti hai is prakaar kendra raajyon par niyantran rakh sakta hai
  • 8 anu 360 – vitteeya aapaatakaal ki dasha mein raajyon ke vitt par bhi kendra ka niyantran ho jaata hai. is dasha mein kendra raajyon ko dhan vyaya karne hetu nirdesh de sakta hai
  • 9 prashaasanik nirdesh [anu 256-257] -kendra raajyon ko raajyon ki sanchaar vyavastha kis prakaar laagoo ki jaaye, ke baare mein nirdesh de sakta hai, ye nirdesh kisi bhi samay diye ja sakte hai, raajya inka paalan karne hetu baadhya hai. yadi raajya in nirdeshon ka paalan na kare to raajya mein samvaidhaanik tantr asafal hone ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai
  • 10 anu 312 mein akhil bhaarateeya sevaaon ka praavadhaan hai ye sevak niyukti, prashikshan, anushaasanaatmak kshetron mein poornat:: kendra ke adheen hai jabki ye seva raajyon mein dete hai raajya sarkaaron ka in par koi niyantran naheen hai
  • 11 ekeekrut nyaayapaalika
  • 12 raajyon ki kaaryapaalik shaktiyaaain sangheeya kaaryapaalik shaktiyon par prabhaavi nahi ho sakti hai.

samvidhaan ki prastaavana

samvidhaan ke uddeshyon ko prakat karne hetu praaya: unase pehle ek prastaavana prastut ki jaati hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki prastaavana ameriki samvidhaan se prabhaavit tatha vishv me sarvashreshth maani jaati hai. prastaavana ke maadhyam se bhaarateeya samvidhaan ka saar, apekshaaeain, uddeshya usaka lakshya tatha darshan prakat hota hai. prastaavana yeh ghoshana karti hai ki samvidhaan apni shakti seedhe janta se praapt karta hai isi kaaran yeh 'ham Bhaarat ke log' - is vaakya se praarambh hoti hai. kehar Singh banaam Bhaarat sangh ke vaad mein kaha gaya tha ki samvidhaan sabha bhaarateeya janta ka seedha pratinidhitv nahi karti at: samvidhaan vidhi ki vishesh anukrupa praapt nahi kar sakta, parantu nyaayaalaya ne ise khaarij karte hue samvidhaan ko sarvopari maana hai jis par koi prashn nahi uthaaya ja sakta hai.

samvidhaan ki prastaavana:

ham Bhaarat ke log, Bhaarat ko ek sampoorn prabhutv sampann, samaajavaadi, dharmanirpeksh, lokatantraatmak ganaraajya banaane ke liye tatha uske samast naagrikon ko :
saamaajik, aarthik aur raajaneetik nyaaya, vichaar, abhivyakti, vishvaas, dharm aur upaasana ki svatantrata, pratishtha aur avsar ki samata praapt karne ke liye tatha
un sabamein vyakti ki garima aur raashtra ki ekta aur akhandata sunishchit karanevaali bandhuta badhaane ke liye
drudh sankalp hokar apni is samvidhaan sabha mein aaj taareekh 26 November 1949 i0 (miti maarg sheersh shukl saptami, samvat do hajaar chhah vikrami) ko etadadvaara
is samvidhaan ko angeekrut, adhiniymit aur aatmaarpit karte hain.

samvidhaan ki prastaavan 13 December 1946 ko Jawahar laal Nehru dvaara paas ki gayi prastaavan ko aamukh bhi kehte hain.

samvidhaan bhaag 3 va 4 : neeti nirdeshak tatv

bhaag 3 tatha 4 milkar 'samvidhaan ki aatma tatha chetna' kahalaate hai kyonki kisi bhi svatantr raashtra ke liye maulik adhikaar tatha neeti-nirdesh desh ke nirmaan mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain. neeti nirdeshak tatv janataantrik samvaidhaanik vikaas ke naveenatam tatv hain. sarvapratham ye Ireland ke samvidhaan mein laagoo kiye gaye the. ye ve tatv hai jo samvidhaan ke vikaas ke saath hi viksit hue hain. in tatvon ka kaarya ek janakalyaanakaari raajya ki sthaapana karna hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke is bhaag mein neeti nirdeshak tatvon ka roopaakaar nishchit kiya gaya hai, maulik adhikaar tatha neeti nirdeshak tatv mein bhed bataaya gaya hai aur neeti nideshak tatvon ke mahatva ko samajhaaya gaya hai.

bhaag 4 k : mool kartavya

mool kartavya, mool savidhaan mein naheen the, inhe 42 vein samvidhaan sanshodhan dvavaara joda gaya hai. ye roos se prerit hokar jode gaye tatha samvidhaan ke bhaag 4 (k) ke anuchhed 51 - a meain rakhe gaye hain. ye kul 11 hain.

51 k. mool kartavya- Bhaarat ke pratyek naagrik ka yeh kartavya hoga ki vah-

  • (k) samvidhaan ka paalan kare aur us ke aadarshon, sansthaaon, raashtra dhvaj aur raashtragaan ka aadar kare ;
  • (kh) svatantrata ke liye hamaare raashtreeya aandolan ko prerit karne vaale uchch aadarshon ko hrudaya mein sanjoe rakhe aur un ka paalan kare;
  • (g) Bhaarat ki prabhuta, ekta aur akhandata ki raksha kare aur use akshunn rakhe;
  • (gh) desh ki raksha kare aur aahvaan kiye jaane par raashtra ki seva kare;
  • (ङ) Bhaarat ke sabhi logon mein samarasata aur samaan bhraatrutv ki bhaavana ka nirmaan kare jo dharm, bhaasha aur pradesh ya varg par aadhaarit sabhi bhedabhaav se pare ho, aisi prathaaon ka tyaag kare jo striyon ke sammaan ke viruddh hai;
  • (ch) hamaari saamaasik sanskruti ki gauravashaali parampara ka mahatva samajhe aur us ka parirkshan kare;
  • (chh) praakrutik paryaavaran ki, jis ke antargat van, jheel nadi aur vanya jeev hain, raksha kare aur us ka sanvardhan kare tatha praani maatr ke prati dayaabhaav rakhe;
  • (j) vaigyaanik drushtikon, maanavavaad aur jnyaaanaarjan tatha sudhaar ki bhaavana ka vikaas kare;
  • (jh) saarvajanik sampatti ko surakshit rakhe aur hinsa se door rahe;
  • (nya) vyaktigat aur saamoohik gatividhiyon ke sabhi kshetron mein utkarsh ki or badhne ka satat prayaas kare jis se raashtra nirantar badhte hue prayatn aur upalabdhi ki nai oonchaaiyon ko chhoo le;
  • (t) yadi maata-pita ya sanrakshak hai, chhah varsh se chaudah varsh tak ki aayu vaale apne, yathaasthiti, baalak ya pratipaalya ke liye shiksha ka avsar pradaan kare.

sanshodhan

bhaarateeya samvidhaan ka sanshodhan Bhaarat ke samvidhaan mein parivartan karne ki prakriya hai. ek sanshodhan ke prastaav ki shuruaat sansad mein hoti hai jahaaain ise ek bill ke roop mein pesh kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Preface, The constitution of India". Government of India. http://india.gov.in/sites/upload_files/npi/files/coi_preface.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 February 2015.
  2. "Introduction to Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice of India. 29 July 2008. http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/introd.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-14.
  3. Das, Hari (2002). Political System of India. Anmol Publications. pa॰ 120. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7488-690-7.
  4. Pylee, M.V. (1997). India's Constitution. S. Chand & Co.. pa॰ 3. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-219-0403-X.
  5. http://parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/debates/facts.htm
  6. Bhaarat ka samvidhaan (poorn paath)
  7. "doosari anusoochi". https://india.gov.in/sites/upload_files/npi/files/constitution/SECOND-SCHEDULE.pdf. abhigman tithi: 10 February 2016.