Bhaarat sarkaar

Bhaarat
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yeh lekh yeh shreni ke sambandh mein hai:

Bhaarat ki raajaneeti


kendra sarkaar

samvidhaan

kaaryakaarini

vidhaayika

nyaayapaalika

sthaaneeya

bhaarateeya aamachunaav


anya desh • praveshadvaar:raajaneeti
praveshadvaar:Bhaarat sarkaar
dekhein samvaad sanpaadan


Bhaarat sarkaar, jo aadhikaarik taur se sangheeya sarkaar va aamtaur se kendreeya sarkaar ke naam se jaana jaata hai, 29 raajyon tatha saat kendra shaasit pradeshon ke sangheeya ikaai jo sanyukt rup se bhaarateeya ganaraajya kahalaata hai, ki niyantrak praadhikaari hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan dvaara sthaapit Bhaarat sarkaar nai Delhi, Delhi se kaarya karti hai.

Bhaarat ke naagrikon se sambandhit buniyaadi deevaani aur faujadaari kaanoon jaise naagrik prakriya sanhita, bhaarateeya dand sanhita, aparaadh prakriya sanhita, aadi mukhyat: sansad dvaara banaaya jaata hai. sangh aur harek raajya sarkaar teen ango kaaryapaalika, vidhaayika va nyaayapaalika ke antargat kaam karti hai. sangheeya aur raajya sarkaaron par laagoo kaanooni pranaali mukhyat: angreji saajha aur vaidhaanik kaanoon (English Common and Statutory Law) par aadhaarit hai. Bhaarat kuchh apavaadon ke saath antarraashtreeya nyaayaalaya ke nyaaya adhikaarita ko sveekaar karta hai. sthaaneeya star par panchaayati raaj pranaali dvaara shaasan ka vikendreekaran kiya gaya hai.

Bhaarat ka samvidhaan Bhaarat ko ek saarvabhaumik, samaajavaadi ganaraajya ki upaadhi deta hai. Bhaarat ek lokataantrik ganaraajya hai, jiska dvisdanaatmak sansad vestaminstar shaili ke sansadeeya pranaali dvaara sanchaalit hai. iske shaasan mein teen mukhya ang hain: nyaayapaalika, kaaryapaalika aur vyavasthaapika.

anukram

raashtrapati

Bhaarat ke raashtrapati, jo ki raashtra ka pramukh hai, ki adhikaanshat: aupachaarik bhoomika hai. uske kaaryon mein samvidhaan ka abhivyaktikran, prastaavit kaanoonon (vidheyak) par apni sahamati dena aur adhyaadesh jaari karna. vah bhaarateeya senaaon ka mukhya senaapati bhi hai. raashtrapati aur uparaashtrapati ko ek apratyaksh matadaan vidhi dvaara 5 varshon ke liye chuna jaata hai. pradhaanamantri sarkaar ka pramukh hai aur kaaryapaalika ki saari shaktiyaan usi ke paas hoti hain. iska chunaav raajanaitik paartiyon ya gathabandhan ke dvaara pratyaksh vidhi se sansad mein bahumat praapt karne par hota hai. bahumat bane rahane ki sthiti mein iska kaaryakaal 5 varshon ka hota hai. samvidhaan mein kisi up-pradhaanamantri ka praavadhaan naheen hai par samay-samay par ismein ferabadal hota raha hai.

vyavasthaapika

vyavasthaapika sansad ko kehte hain jiske do sadan hain - uchchasadan Rajyasabha aur nimnasadan Loksabha. Rajyasabha mein 250 sadasya hote hain jabki Loksabha mein 552. Rajyasabha ke sadasyon ka chunaav, apratyaksh vidhi se 6 varshon ke liye hota hai, jabki Loksabha ke sadasyon ka chunaav pratyaksh vidhi se, 5 varshon ki avadhi ke liye. 18 varsh se adhik aayu ke sabhi bhaarateeya naagrik matadaan kar Loksabha ke sadasyon ka chunaav kar sakte hain.

kaaryapaalika

kaaryapaalika ke teen ang hain - raashtrapati, uparaashtrapati aur mantrimandal. mantrimandal ka pramukh pradhaanamantri hota hai. mantrimandal ke pratyek mantri ko sansad ka sadasya hona anivaarya hai. kaaryapaalika, vyavasthaapika se neeche hota hai.

nyaayapaalika

Bhaarat ki svatantr nyaayapaalika ka sheersh sarvochch nyaayaalaya hai, jiska pramukh pradhaan nyaayaadheesh hota hai. sarvochch nyaayaalaya ko apne naye maamalon tatha uchch nyaayaalayon ke vivaadon, dono ko dekhne ka adhikaar hai. Bhaarat mein 24 uchch nyaayaalaya hain, jinke adhikaar aur uttaradaayitv sarvochch nyaayaalaya ki apeksha seemit hain. nyaayapaalika aur vyavasthaapika ke paraspar matabhed ya vivaad ka sulah raashtrapati karta hai.

sangh aur raajya

Bhaarat ki shaasan vyavastha kendreeya aur raajyeeya dono siddhaanto ka mishran hai. Loksabha, Rajyasabha sarvochch nyaayaalaya ki sarvochchata, sangh lok seva aayog ityaadi ise ek sangheeya dhaanche ka roop dete hain to raajyon ke mantreemandal, sthaaneeya nikaayon ki svaayatta ityaadi jaise tatv ise raajyon se bani shaasan vyavastha ki or le jaate hain. pratyek raajya ka ek raajyapaal hota hai jo raashtrapati dvaara 5 varshon ke liye niyukt kiye jaate hain.


sangheeya kaaryapaalika

sangheeya kaaryapaalika me raashtrapati, uparaashtrapati, mantriprishd tatha mahaanyaayavaadi aate hai. raamajavaaya Kapoor banaam Punjab raajya vaad me Supreme court ne kaaryapaalika shakti ko nimn prakaar se paribhaashit kiya hai-

  • 1 vidhaayika nyaayapaalika ke kaaryau ko pruthak karne ke pashchaat sarkaar ka bacha kaarya hi kaaryapaalika hai.
  • 2 kaaryapaalika mai desh ka prashaasan, vidhiyau ka paalan sarkaari neeti ka nirdhaaran, vidheyakau ki taiyaari karna, kaanoon vyavstha banaaye rakhana saamaajik aarthik kalyaan ko badhaava dena videsh neeti nirdhaarit karna aadi aata hai.

raashtrapati

sangh ka kaaryapaalak adhyaksh hai sangh ke sabhi kaaryapaalak kaarya us ke naam se kiye jaate hai anu 53 ke anusaar sangh ki kaaryapaalak shakti usamai nihit hai in shaktiyau/kaaryon ka prayog kriyaanvayn raashtrapati savindhaan ke anuroop hi seedhe athva adheenasth adhikaariyau ke maadhyam se karega. vah sashastr senaaon ka sarvochch senaanaayak bhi hota hai, sabhi prakaar ke aapaatakaal lagaane va hataane wala yuddh shaanti ki ghoshana karne wala hota hai vah desh ka pratham naagrik hai tatha raajya dvaara jaari vareeyata kram me usaka sadaiv pratham sthaan hota hai. bhaarateeya raashtrapati ka bhaarateeya naagrik hona aavashyak hai tatha usaki aayu kam se kam 35 varsh honi chaahiye. raashtrapati ka chunaav, us par mahaabhiyog ki avasthaaeain, usaki shaktiyaaain, samvidhaan ke antargat raashtrapati ki sthiti, raashtrapati ki sansadeeya shakti tatha raashtrapati ki vivekaadheen shaktiyon ka varnan is adhyaaya mein kiya gaya hai.

mantriprishd

sansadeeya lokatantr ke mahtvapoorn siddhaant 1. raajya pramukh, sarkaar pramukh na hokar maatr samvaidhaanik pramukh hi hota hai
2. vaastavik kaaryapaalika shakti, mantriprishd jo ki saamoohik roop se sansad ke nichle sadan ke saamane uttaradaayi hoga ke paas hogi
3 mantriprishd ke sadsya sansad ke sadsyon se liye jaayeinge

parishad ka gathan

1. pradhaanamantri ke pad pe aate hi yeh parishad gathit ho jaati hai yeh aavashyak nahi hai ki uske saath kuchh anya mantri bhi shapath le keval pradhaanamantri hi mantriprishd hoga

2 mantriprishd ki sadsya sankhya par maulik samvidhaan me koi rok nahi thi kintu 91 ve sanshodhan ke dvaara mantriprishd ki sankhya
Loksabha ke sadsya sankhya ke 15% tak seemit kar di gayi vahi raajyon mebhi mantreeparishd ki
sankhya vidhaanasabha ke 15% se adhik nahi hogi panrantu nyoonatam 12 mantri honge

mantriyon ki shreniyaaain

samvidhaan mantriyon ki shreni nirdhaarit nahi karta yeh nirdhaaran angreji pratha ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai
kul tidna prakaar ke mantri maane gaye hai

  • 1. cabinet mantri—asarvaadhik varishth mantri hai unase hi cabinet ka gathan hota hai mantraalaya milne par ve uske adhyaksh hote hai unki sahaayata hetu raajya mantri tatha upamantri hote hai unhein cabinet baithak me baithane ka adhikaar hota hai anu 352 unhein maanyata deta hai

krupya sabhi cabinet mantraalayon, raajya mantraalaya ki soochi pruthak se jod de

  • 2. raajya mantri dviteeya star ke mantri hote hai saamaanyat unahe mantraalaya ka svatantr prabhaar nahi milta kintu pradhaanamantri chaahe to yeh kar sakta hai unhein cabinet baithak me aane ka adhikaar nahi hota.
  • 3. upamantri kanishthatam mantri hai unka pad srujan cabinet ya raajya mantri ko sahaayata dene hetu kiya jaata hai ve mantraalaya ya vibhaag ka svatantr prabhaar bhi nahi lete hai.
  • 4. sansadeeya sachiv sattaaroodh dal ke sansad sadasya hote hai is pad pe niyukt hone ke pashchaat ve mantri gan ki sansad tatha iski samitiyau me kaarya karne me sahaayata dete hai ve pradhaan mantri ki ichha se pad grahan karte hai ve pad gopaneeyata ki shapath bhi pradhaanamantri ke dvaara grahan karte hai vaastav me ve mantri parishad ke sadsya nahi hote hai keval mantri ka darja praapt hota hai.

mantrimandal

mantri parishad ek sanyukt nikaaya hai jismॆn 1, 2, ya 3 prakaar ke mantri hote hai yeh bahut kam milta hai charcha karta hai ya nirnaya leta hai vaheen mantrimandal me maatr cabinet prakaar ke mantri hote hai yeh samay samay par milti hai tatha samast mahatvapoorn nirnaya leti hai is ke dvaara sveekrut nirnaya apne aap parishad dvaara sveekrut nirnaya maan liye jaate hai yahi desh ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn nirnaya lene wala nikaaya hai.

  • sammilit uttaradaayitv anu 75[3] ke anusaar mantriprishd sansad ke saamane sammilit roop se uttaradaayi hai iska lakshya mantriprishd me sangati laana hai taaki usame aantarik roop se vivaad paida na ho.
  • vyaktigat uttaradaayitv anu 75[2] ke anusaar mantri vyaktigat roop se raashtrapati ke saamane uttaradaayi hote hai kintu yadi pradhaanamantri ki salaah na ho to raashtrapati mantri ko padchyut nahi kar sakta hai.

Bhaarat ka mahaanyaayavaadi

Bhaarat ka mahaanyaayavaadi sansad ke kisi bhi sadan ka sadasya na rahate hue bhi sansad ki kaarravaai mein bhaag le sakta hai. vah Bhaarat ka naagrik hona chaahiye. vah apni niji vakaalat kar sakta hai, parantu vah Bhaarat sarkaar ke khilaaf koi mukadama naheen lad sakta hai.

pradhaanamantri

anu 74 spasht roop se mantriprishd ki adhyakshata tatha sanchaalan hetu pradhaanamntri ki upastithi aavashyak maanata hai usaki mrutyu ya tyaagapatr ki dsha me samast parishad ko pad chhodana padata hai vah akele hi mantri parishad ka gathan karta hai raashtrapati mantri gan ki niyukti us ki salaah se hi karta hai mantri gan ke vibhaag ka nirdhaaran bhi vahi karta hai cabinet ke kaarya ka nirdhaaran bhi vahi karta hai desh ke prashaasan ko nirdesh bhi vahi deta hai sabhi neetigat nirnaya vahi leta hai raashtrapati tatha mantri parishad ke madhya sampark sootr bhi vahi hai parishad ka pradhaan pravakta bhi vahi hai parishad ke naam se ladi jaane waali sansadeeya bahasau ka netrutv karta hai sansad me parishad ke paksh me ladi ja rahi kisi bhi bahas me vah bhaag le sakta hai mantri gan ke madhya samanvaya bhi vahi karta hai vah kisi bhi mantraalaya se koi bhi soochana mangava sakta hai in sab kaaranau ke chalte pradhaanamntri ko desh ka sabse mahtvapoorn raajanaitik vyaktitv maana jaata hai

pradhaanamantri sarkaar ke prakaar

pradhaanamantri sarkaar sansadeeya sarkaar ka hi prakaar hai jisme pradhaanamantri mantri parishad ka netrutv karta hai vah cabinet ki nirnaya lene ki kshamata ko prabhaavit karta hai vah cabinet se adhik shaktishaali hai uske nirnaya hi cabinet ke nirnaya hai desh ki saamaanya neetiyaaain cabinet dvaara nirdhaarit naheen hoti hai yeh kaarya pradhaanamantri apne nikat sahayogi chaahe vo mantri parishad ke sadsya na ho ki sahaayata se karta hai jaise ki indira gaaaindhi apne kichn cabinet ki sahaayata se karti thi

pradhaanamantri sarkaar ke laabh

  • 1 teevr tatha kathor nirnaya le sakti hai
  • 2 desh ko raajanaitik sthaaitv milta hai.

isse kuchh haani bhi hai

  • 1 cabinet aise nirnaya leti hai jo satta roodh dal ke hit me ho na ki desh ke hit me
  • 2 is ke dvaara gair samvaidhaanik shakti kendron ka janm hota hai

cabinet sarkaar

sansadeeya sarkaar ka hi prakaar hai is me neeti gat nirnaya saamoohik roop se cabinet [mantri mandal ] leta hai is me pradhaanamantri cabinet pe chha nahi jaata hai is ke nirnaya saamaanyat santulit hote hai lekin kabhi kabhi ve is tarah ke hote hai jo aspasht tatha saahasik nahi hote hai. 1989 ke baad desh me pradhaanamantri prakaar ka nahi balki cabinet prakaar ka shaasan raha hai.

pradhaanamantri ke kaarya

1- mantreeparishd ke gathan ka kaarya

2- pramukh shaasak

3- neeti nirmaata

4- sasad ka neta

5- videsh niti ka nirdhaarak

kaaryakaari sarkaar

bahumat samaapt ho jaane ke baad jab mantri parishad tyaagapatr de deti hai tab kaaryakaari sarkaar astitv me aati hai athva pradhaanamantri ki mrutyu/ tyaagapatr ki dasha me yeh sthiti aati hai. yeh sarkaar antarim prakruti ki hoti hai yeh tab tak sthaapit rahati hai jab tak nayi mantriprishd shapath na le le yeh isliye kaam karti hai taaki anuchhed 74 ke anuroop ek mantriprishd raashtrapati ki sahaayata hetu rahe. vi.N.Rao banaam Bhaarat sangh vaad mein uchchatam nyaayaalaya ne maana tha ki mantri parishad sadaiv maujood rahani chaahiye yadi yeh anupasthit hui to raashtrapati apne kaam svanya karne lagega jis se sarkaar ka roop badal kar raashtrapati ho jaayega jo ki samvidhaan ke mool dhaaainche ke khilaaf hoga. yeh kaaryakaari sarkaar koi bhi vitteeya/neetigat nirnaya nahi le sakti hai kyonki us samay lok sabha maujood nahi rahati hai vah keval desh ka dainik prashaasan chalaati hai. is prakaar ki sarkaar ke saamane sabse vikt sthiti tab aa gayi thi jab atal bihaari Vajpayee ki sarkaar ko 1999 me Kargil yuddh ka sanchaalan karna pada tha. kintu vikt dasha me is prakaar ki sarkaar bhi koi bhi neeti nirnaya le sakti hai.

susthaapit paranparaae

ek sansadeeya sarkaar mein ye panraparaae aisi prathaaeain maani jaati hai jo sarkaar ke sabhi angon par vaidhaanik roop
se laagoo maani jaati hai unka varnan karne ke liye koi vidhaan naheen hota hai na hi samvidhaan me kisi desh ke shaasan ke baare me poorn varnan kiya ja sakta hai samvidhaan nirmaata bhavishya me hone vaale vikaas tatha desh ke shaasan par unke prabhaav ka anumaan naheen laga sakte at: ve unke sambandh me samvidhaan mein praavadhaan bhi naheen kar sakte hai
is tarah samvidhaan ek jeevit shareer to hai parantu poorn varnan nahi hai is varnan me bina sanshodhan laaye parivartan bhi naheen ho sakta hai vahi panraparaae samvidhaan ke praavadhaanau ki tarah vaidhaanik naheen hoti ve sarkaar ke sanchaalan mein snehak ka kaarya karte hai tatha sarkaar ka prabhaavi sanchaalan karne me sahaayak hai
panraparaae is liye paalit ki jaati hai kyonki unke abhaav me raajanaitik kathinaaiya aa sakti hai isi kaaran unhein samvidhaan ka poorak maana jaata haibriten me ham inka sabse viksit tatha prabhaavashaali roop dekh sakte hai
inke do prakaar hai pratham ve jo sansad tatha mantriprishd ke madhya sanyojan ka kaarya karti hai yatha avishvaas prastaav paarit hone par parishad ka tyaagapatr de dena

dviteeya ve jo vidhaayika ki kaaryavaahiyon se sambandhit hai jaise kisi bill ka teen baar vaachan sansad ke teen satr raashtrapati dvaara dhan bill ko sveekruti dena upaspeekar ka chunaav vipaksh se karna jab speaker satta paksh se chuna gaya ho aadi

sarkaar ke sansadeeya tatha raashtrapati prakaar

sansadeeya shaasan ke samarthan me tark
1. raashtrapateeya shaasan me raashtrapati vaastavik kaarya paalika hota hai jo janta dvaara nishchit samay ke liye chuna jaata hai vah vidhaayika ke prati uttaradaayi bhi nehi hota hai uske mantri bhi vidhaayika ke sadasya nahi hote hai tatha usi ke prati uttatadaayi honge na ki vidhaayika ke prati
vahi sansadeeya shaasan me shakti mantri parishad ke paas hoti hai jo vidhaayika ke prati uttaradaayi hoti hai

2. Bhaarat ki vividhta ko dekhte hue sansadeeya shaasan jyaada upayogi hai is me desh ke sabhi vargon ke log mantri parishad me liye ja sakte hai

3. is shaasan me sangharsh hone [vidhaayika tatha mantri parishad ke madhya] ki sambhaavana kam rahati hai kyauki mantri vidhaayika ke sadasya bhi hote hai

4 Bhaarat jaise vividhta poorn desh me sarvamaanya roop se raashtrapati ka chunaav karna lagbhag asambhav hai

5 minte maarle sudhaar 1909 ke samay se hi sansadeeya shaasan se Bhaarat ke log parichay rakhate hai.

inhein bhi dekhein