Bhaarat ke raashtrapati

Bhaarat ke raashtrapati sangh ka kaaryapaalak adhyaksh hain. sangh ke sabhi kaaryapaalak kaarya unke naam se kiye jaate hain. anuchhed 52 ke anusaar sangh ki kaaryapaalak shakti unamein nihit hai. vah sashastr senaaon ka sarvochch senaanaayak bhi hota hai. sabhi prakaar ke aapaatakaal lagaane va hataane wala, yuddh/shaanti ki ghoshana karne wala hota hai. vah desh ka pratham naagrik hai. bhaarateeya raashtrapati ka bhaarateeya naagrik hona aavashyak hai.

siddhaantat: raashtrapati ke paas paryaapt shakti hoti hai. par kuchh apavaadon ke alaava raashtrapati ke pad mein nihit adhikaansh adhikaar vaastav mein pradhaanamantri ki adhyakshata vaale mantriprishd ke dvaara upayog kiye jaate hain.

Bhaarat ke raashtrapati nai Delhi sthit raashtrapati bhavan mein rahate hain, jise raayaseena hil ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. raashtrapati adhiktam kitni bhi baar pad par rah sakte hain. adhiktam ki koi seema tay nahi hain .ab tak keval pehle raashtrapati dau॰ raajeindr prasaad ne hi is pad par do kaaryakaal poora kiya hai.

pratibha Patil Bhaarat ki 12veen tatha is pad ko sushobheet karne waali pehli mahila raashtrapati hain.[1] unhonne 25 July 2007 ko pad va gopaneeyata ki shapath li thi.

samprati pranav mukharji Bhaarat ke raashtrapati hain.

anukram

itihaas

15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat Britain se svatantr hua tha aur antarim vyavastha ke tahat desh ek raashtramandal adhiraajya ban gaya. is vyavastha ke tahat Bhaarat ke Governor general ko Bhaarat ke raashtrapramukh ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya, jinhein briteesh India mein Britain ke antarim raaja - George VI dvaara british sarkaar ke bajaay Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri ki salaah par niyukt karna tha.

yeh ek asthaayi upaaya tha, parantu bhaarateeya raajaneetik pranaali mein saajha raaja ke astitv ko jaari rakhana sahi maayanon mein samprabhu raashtra ke liye upayukt vichaar naheen tha. aajaadi se pehle Bhaarat ke aakhri british vaaisaraaya Lord maauntabetan heen Bhaarat ke pehle Governor general bane the. jald hi unhonne si.raajagopaalaachaari ko yeh pad saunp diya, jo Bhaarat ke ikalaute bhaarateeya mool ke Governor general bane the. isi beech dau॰ raajeindr prasaad ke netrutv mein samvidhaan sabha dnaara 26 November 1949 ko bhaarateeya savindhaan ka masauda taiyaar ho chuka tha aur 26 January 1950 ko aupachaarik roop se samvidhaan ko sveekaar kiya gaya tha. is taareekh ka prateekaatmak mahatva tha kyonki 26 January 1930 ko bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ne Britain se pehli baar poorn svatantrata ko aavaaj di thi. jab samvidhaan laagoo hua aur raajeindr prasaad ne Bhaarat ke pehle raashtrapati ka pad sabhaanla to usi samay Governor general aur raaja ka pad ek nirvaachit raashtrapati dvaara pratisthaapit ho gaya.

is kadam se Bhaarat ki ek raashtramandal adhiraajya ki sthiti samaapt ho gaya. lekin yeh ganatantr raashtron ke raashtramandal ka sadasya bana raha. kyonki Bhaarat ke pratham pradhaanamantri Nehru ne tark kiya ki yadi koi bhi raashtra british samraat ko "raashtramandal ke pradhaan" ke roop mein sveekaar kare par zaroori naheen hai ki vah british samraat ko apne raashtrapradhaan ki maanyata de, use raashtramandal mein rahane ki anumati di jaani chaahiye. yeh ek atyant mahatvapoorn nirnaya tha jisne beesaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein nae-svatantr ganaraajya bane kai anya poorv british upaniveshon ke raashtramandal mein rahane ke liye ek misaal sthaapit kiya.

raashtrapati ka chunaav

Bhaarat ke raashtrapati ka chunaav aanupaatik pratinidhitv pranaali ke ekal sankramaneeya mat paddhati ke dvaara hota hai.

raashtrapati ko Bhaarat ke sansad ke dono sadanon (lok sabha aur raajya sabha) tatha saath hi raajya vidhaayikaaon (vidhaan sabhaaon) ke nirvaachit sadasyon dvaara paaainch varsh ki avadhi ke liye chuna jaata hai. vote aavantit karne ke liye ek formula istemaal kiya gaya hai taaki har raajya ki janasankhya aur us raajya se vidhaanasabha ke sadasyon dvaara vote daalne ki sankhya ke beech ek anupaat rahe aur raajya vidhaanasabhaaon ke sadasyon aur raashtreeya saansadon ke beech ek samaanupaat bani rahe. agar kisi ummeedavaar ko bahumat praapt naheen hoti hai to ek sthaapit pranaali hai jisse haarne vaale ummeedavaaron ko pratiyogita se hata diya jaata hai aur unako mile vote anya ummeedavaaron ko tabatak hastaantarit hota hai, jabatak kisi ek ko bahumat naheen milti.

raashtrapati banane ke liye aavashyak yogyataaeain :

Bhaarat ka koi naagrik jiski umr 35 saal ya adhik ho vo ek raashtrapati banane ke liye ummeedavaar ho sakta hai. raashtrapati ke liye ummeedavaar ko Loksabha ka sadasya banane ki yogyata hona chaahiye aur sarkaar ke adheen koi laabh ka pad dhaaran naheen karna chaahiye. parantu nimnalikhit kuchh kaaryaalaya-dhaarakon ko raashtrapati ke ummeedavaar ke roop mein khada hone ki anumati di gayi hai:

raash‍aatrapa‍aati ke nirvaachan sam‍aaban‍aadhi kisi bhi vivaad mein ninrya lene ka adhikaar uch‍aachatam n‍aayaayaalaya ko hai.

raashtrapati par mahaabhiyog

anuchhed 61 raashtrapati ke mahaabhiyog se sambandhit hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke antargat maatr raashtrapati mahaabhiyojit hota hai, anya sabhi padaadhikaari pad se hataaye jaate hai. mahaabhiyojan ek vidhaayika sambandhit kaaryavaahi hai jabki pad se hataana ek kaaryapaalika sambandhit kaaryavaahi hai. mahaabhiyojan ek kadaai se paalit kiya jaane wala aupachaarik krutya hai jo samvidhaan ka ullaghann karne par hi hota hai. yeh ullaghann ek raajaanaitik krutya hai jiska nirdhaaran sansad karti hai. vah tabhi pad se hatega jab use sansad me prastut kisi aise prastaav se hataaya jaaye jise prastut karte samay sadan ke 1/4 sadasyon ka samarthan mile. prastaav paarit karne se poorv usako 14 din pehle notice diya jaayega. prastaav sadan ki kul sankhya ke 2/3 se adhik bahumat se paarit hona chaahiye. fir doosare sadan me jaane par is prastaav ki jaaainch ek samiti ke dvaara hogi. is samay raashtrapati apna paksh svanya athva vakeel ke maadhyam se rakh sakta hai. doosra sadan bhi use usi 2/3 bahumat se paarit karega. doosare sadan dvaara prastaav paarit karne ke din se raashtrapati pad se hat jaayega.

raashtrapati ki shaktiyaaain

nyaayik shaktiyaaain

samvidhaan ka 72vaaain anuchhed raashtrapati ko nyaayik shaktiyaaain deta hai ki vah dand ka unmoolan, kshama, aaharan, parihran, parivartan kar sakta hai.

  • kshamaadaan – kisi vyakti ko mili sampoorn saja tatha dosh siddhi aur utpann hui niryojnyaataaon ko samaapt kar dena tatha use us sthiti me rakh dena maano usane koi aparaadh kiya hi nahi tha. yeh laabh poornat: athva anshat: milta hai tatha saja dene ke baad athva usase pehle bhi mil sakti hai.


  • laghukaran – dand ki prakruti kathor se hata kar namr kar dena udaaharanaarth sashram kaaraavaas ko saamaanya kaaraavaas mein badal dena
  • parihaar – dand ki avadhi ghata dena parantu us ki prakruti nahi badli jaayegi
  • viraam – dand me kami la dena yeh vishesh aadhaar par milti hai jaise garbhavati mahila ki saja me kami laana
  • pravilanban – dand pradaan karne me vilamb karna visheshakar mrutyu dand ke maamalau me

raashtrapati ki kshamaakaari shaktiyaan poornat: usaki ichha par nirbhar karti hain. unhein ek adhikaar ke roop me maanga nahi ja sakta hai. ye shaktiyaan kaaryapaalika prakruti ki hai tatha raashtrapati inka prayog mantriprishd ki salaah par karega. nyaayaalaya mein inko chunauti di ja sakti hai. inka lakshya dand dene me hui bhool ka niraakaran karna hai jo nyaayapaalika ne kar di ho.

sherasinh banaam Punjab raajya 1983 me supreemakort ne nirnaya diya ki anu 72, anu 161 ke antargat di gayi daya yaachika jitni sheeghrata se ho sake utani jaldi nipta di jaaye. raashtrapati nyaayik kaaryavaahi tatha nyaayik nirnaya ko nahi badalega vah keval nyaayik nirnaya se raahat dega yaachikaakarta ko yeh bhi adhikaar nahi hoga ki vah sunavaai ke liye raashtrapati ke samaksh upasthit ho

veto shaktiyaaain

vidhaayika ki kisi kaaryavaahi ko vidhi banane se rokane ki shakti veetau shakti kahalaati hai samvidhaan raashtrapati ko teen prakaar ke veto deta hai.

  • (1) poorn veto – nirdhaarit prakiya se paas bill jab raashtrapati ke paas aaye (samvidhaan sanshodhan bill ke atirikt)] to vah apni sveekruti ya asveekruti ki ghoshana kar sakta hai kintu yadi anu 368 ke antargat koi bill aaye to vah apni asveekruti nahi de sakta hai yadhapi Bhaarat me ab tak raashtrapati ne is veto ka prayog bina mantriprishd ki salaah ke nahi kiya hai maana jaata hai ki vah aisa kar bhi nahi sakta. (Britain me yahi panrapanra hai jiska anusaran Bhaarat me kiya gaya hai.)
  • (2) nilmbanakaari veto – samvidhaan sanshodhan athva dhan bill ke atirikt raashtrapati ko bheja gaya koi bhi bill vah sansad ko purnavichaar hetu vaapis bhej sakta hai kintu sansad yadi is bill ko vaapis paas kar ke bhej de to uske paas sivaaya iske koi vikalp nahi hai us bill ko sveekruti de de. is veto ko vah apne vivekaadhikaar se prayog lega. is veto ka prayog abhi tak sansad sadasyau ke vetan bill bhatte tatha peinshan niyam sanshodhan 1991 me kiya gaya tha. yeh ek vitteeya bill tha. raashtrapati veinkat raman ne is veto ka prayog is aadhaar par kiya ki yeh bill Loksabha me bina unki anumati ke laaya gaya tha.
  • (3) paaket veto – samvidhaan raashtrapati ko sveekruti asveekruti dene ke liye koi samay seema nahi deta hai yadi raashtrapati kisi bill pe koi nirnaya na de [saamaanya na ki dhan ya samvidhaan sanshodhan ] to maana jaayega ki us ne apne paaket veto ka prayog kiya hai yeh bhi usaki vivekaadhikaar shakti ke andar aata hai pepsoo bill 1956 tatha bhaarateeya daak bill 1984 me raashtrapati ne is veto ka prayog kiya tha.

raashtrapati ki sansadeeya shakti

raashtrapati sansad ka ang hai. koi bhi bill bina usaki sveekruti ke paas nahi ho sakta athva sadan me hi naheen laaya ja sakta hai.

raashtrapati ki vivekaadheen shaktiyaaain

1. anu 74 ke anusaar
2. anu 78 ke anusaar pradhaan mantri raashtrapati ko samay samay par mil kar raajya ke maamalau tatha bhaavi vidheyako ke baare me soochana dega, is tarah anu 78 ke anusaar raashtrapati soochana praapti ka adhikaar rakhata hai yeh anu pradhaan mantri pe ek samvaidhaanik uttaradaayitv rakhata hai yeh adhikaar raashtrapati kabhi bhi prayog la sakta hai iske maadhyam se vah mantri parishad ko vidheyako nirnayau ke parinaamau ki chetaavani de sakta hai
3. jab koi raajanaitik dal Loksabha me bahumat nahi pa sake tab vah apne vivekaanusaar pradhaanamntri ki niyukti karega
4. nilanban veto/paaket veto bhi viveki shakti hai
5. sansad ke sadano ko baithak hetu bulaana
6. anu 75 (3) mantri parishad ke sammilit uttaradaayitv ka pratipaadan karta hai raashtrapati mantri parishad ko kisi nirnaya par jo ki ek mantri ne vyaktigat roop se liya tha par sammilit roop se vichaar karne ko kah sakta hai
7. Loksabha ka vightan yadi mantreeparishd ko bahumat praapt nahi hai to Loksabha ka vightan usaki vivek shakti ke daayare me aa jaata hai
kisi kaaryavaahk sarkaar ke paas Loksabha ka bahumat nahi hota is prakaar ki sarkaar maatr saamanya nirnaya hi le sakti hai na ki mahatvapoorn nirnaya yeh raashtrapati nirdhaarit karega ki nirnaya kis prakruti ka hai

samvidhaan ke antargat raashtrapati ki sthiti

raamajas Kapoor vaad tatha sher Singh vaad me nirnaya dete hue Supreme court ne kaha ki sansadeeya sarkaar me vaastavik kaaryapaalika shakti mantriprishd me hai. 42, 44 vein sanshodhan se poorv anu 74 ka paath tha ki ek mantriprishd pradhaan mantri ki adhyakshata me hogi jo ki raashtrapati ko salaah sahaayata degi. is anuchhed me yeh nahi kaha gaya tha ki vah is salaah ko maanane hetu baadhya hoga ya nahi. keval angreji panrapara ke anusaar maana jaata tha ki vah baadhya hai. 42 ve sanshodhan dvaara anu 74 ka paath badal diya gaya raashtrapati salaah ke anuroop kaam karne ko baadhya maana gaya. 44vein sanshodhan dvaara anu 74 me fir badlaav kiya gaya. ab raashtrapati di gayi salaah ko purnavichaar hetu lauta sakta hai kintu use us salaah ke anuroop kaam karna hoga jo use doosari baar mili ho.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain