Bhaarat ke naagrikon ka maulik adhikaar

bhaarateeya samvidhaan sabhi naagrikon ke liye v‍aayaktigt aur saamoohik roop se kuchh buniyaadi adhikaar deta hai. in maulik adhikaaron ki chhah v‍aayaapak shreniyon ke roop mein samvidhaan mein guaranty di jaati hai jo n‍aayaayochit aur nyaayaalaya mein vaad yogya hain.

anukram

maulik adhikaar

samvidhaan ke bhaag 3 mein sannihit anuch‍aachhed 12 se 35 maulik adhikaaron ke sambandh mein hai.[1] ye adhikaar hain:

samaanata ka adhikaar

anuchhed (14-18) ke antargat nimn adhikaar shaamil hain-

  • 1- vidhi ke samaksh samaanata.
  • 2- dharm, moolavansh, jaati, ling ya jan‍aam s‍aathaan ke aadhaar par vibhed ka pratishedh.
  • 3- lok niyojan ke vishay mein avsar ki samaanata.
  • 4- as‍aaprush‍aayataaya chhuaachhoot ka ant.
  • 5- upaadhiyon ka ant.

s‍aavatantrata ka adhikaar

anuchhed (19-22) ke antargat bhaarateeya naagrikon ko nimn adhikaar praapt hain-

  • 1- vaak-s‍aavatantrata aadi vishyak kuchh adhikaaron ka sanrakshan. jama hone sangh ya union banaane, aane-jaane, nivaas karne aur koi bhi jeevikopaarjan evam v‍aayavasaaya karne ki s‍aavatantrata ka adhikaar.
  • 2- aparaadhon ke liye doshasiddhi ke sambandh mein sanrakshan.
  • 3- praan aur daihik s‍aavatantrata ka sanrakshan.
  • 4- kuchh dashaaon mein giraftaari aur nirodh se sanrakshan.

inmein se kuchh adhikaar raaj‍aaya ki suraksha, videshi raashtron ke saath bhin‍aanataapoorn sambandh, saarvajanik v‍aayavas‍aatha, shaaleelanata aur naitikta ke adheen diye jaate hain.

shoshan ke viruddh adhikaar

anuchhed (23-24) ke antargat nimn adhikaar varnit hain-

  • 1- maanav aur durv‍aayaapaar aur balaatshram ka pratishedh
  • 2- kaarkhaanon aadi mein 14 varsh tak baalakon ke niyojan ka pratishedh

dharm ki svatantrata ka adhikaar

anuchhed (25-28) ke antargat dhaarmik svatantrata ka adhikaar varnit hain, jiske anusaar naagrikon ko praapt hai-

  • 1- ant:karan ki aur dharm ki abaadh roop se maanane, aacharan aur prachaar karne ki s‍aavatantrata.
  • 2- dhaarmik kaaryon ke prabandh ki s‍aavatantrata.
  • 3- kisi vishish‍aat dharm ki abhivruddhi ke liye karon ke sandaaya ke baare mein s‍aavatantrata.
  • 4- kul shiksha sans‍aathaaon mein dhaarmik shiksha ya dhaarmik upaasana mein upasthit hone ke baare mein s‍aavatantrata.

sanskruti aur shiksha sambandhi adhikaar

anuchhed (29-30) ke antargat praapt adhikaar-

  • 1- kisi bhi varg ke naagrikon ko apni sans‍aakruti surakshit rakhane, bhaasha ya lipi bachaae rakhane ka adhikaar.
  • 2- al‍aapasankh‍aayak-vargon ke hiton ka sanrakshan.
  • 3- shiksha sans‍aathaaon ki s‍aathaapana aur prashaasan karne ka al‍aapasankh‍aayak-vargon ka adhikaar.[2]

kuchh vidhiyon ki vyaavrutti

anuchhed (31) ke anusaar kuchh vidhiyon ke vyaavrutti ka praavadhaan kiya gaya hai-

  • 1- sanpadaaon aadi ke arjan ke liye upabandh karne waali vidhiyon ki vyaavrutti.
  • 2- kuchh adhiniymon aur viniymon ka vidhimaanyeekaran.
  • 3- kuchh nideshak tatvon ko prabhaavi karne waali vidhiyon ki vyaavrutti.

samvaidhaanik upachaaron ka adhikaar

dau॰ bheemaraav anbedakar ne samvaidhaanik upachaaron ke adhikaar (anuchhed 32-35) ko 'samvidhaan ka hrudaya aur aatma' ki sanjnyaa di thi.[3] saanvaidhaanik upachaar ke adhikaar ke andar 5 prakaar ke praavadhaan hain-

  • 1- bandi pratyaksheekaran : bandi pratyaksheekaran dvaara kisi bhi girftaar vyakti ko nyaayaalaya ke saamane prastut kiye jaane ka aadesh jaari kiya jaata hai. yadi girftaari ka tareeka ya kaaran gairakaanooni ya santoshajanak na ho to nyaayaalaya vyakti ko chhodne ka aadesh jaari kar sakta hai.
  • 2- paramaadesh : yeh aadesh un paristhitiyon mein jaari kiya jaata hai jab nyaayaalaya ko lagta hai ki koi saarvajanik padaadhikaari apne kaanooni aur samvaidhaanik kartavyon ka paalan naheen kar raha hai aur isse kisi vyakti ka maulik adhikaar prabhaavit ho raha hai.
  • 3- nishedhaagya : jab koi nichli adaalat apne adhikaar kshetr ko atikramit kar kisi mukdamein ki sunavaai karti hai to oopar ki adaalatein use aisa karne se rokane ke liye 'nishedhaagya ya pratishedh lekh' jaari karti hain.
  • 4- adhikaar pruchha : jab nyaayaalaya ko lagta hai ki koi vyakti aise pad par niyukt ho gaya hai jis par usaka koi kaanooni adhikaar naheen hai tab nyaayaalaya 'adhikaar pruchha aadesh' jaari kar vyakti ko us pad par kaarya karne se rok deta hai.
  • 5- utpreshan rit : jab koi nichli adaalat ya sarkaari adhikaari bina adhikaar ke koi kaarya karta hai to nyaayaalaya uske samaksh vichaaraadheen maamale ko usase lekar utpreshan dvaara use oopar ki adaalat ya saksham adhikaari ko hastaantarit kar deta hai.[4][5]

sandarbh

  1. CHAPTER – 3 'FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES'
  2. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS IN INDIA
  3. Bhaarat ka samvidhaan : siddhaant aur vyavahaar, (kaksha 11 ke liye raajaneeti vigyaan ki paathya pustak) raashtreeya shaikshik anusandhaan aur prashikshan parishad, 2006, prushth- 41, ISBN: 81-7450-590-3
  4. PART-III FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES AND RIGHTS
  5. Bhaarat ka samvidhaan : siddhaant aur vyavahaar, (kaksha 11 ke liye raajaneeti vigyaan ki paathya pustak) raashtreeya shaikshik anusandhaan aur prashikshan parishad, 2006, prushth- 41, ISBN: 81-7450-590-3

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